1 B. Croke, “Justinian's Bulgar victory celebration,” Byzantoslavica 41 (1980), 188–95. 2 B. Bavant, in C. Morrisson (ed.), Le monde byzantin I (Paris, 2004), 341–3. 3 So also D. Keys, Catastrophe. An Investigation into the Origin of the Modern World (London, 1999), 44–6. 4 D. Keys, Catastrophe, 35–52, argues that conditions caused by the climatic disaster of 536–7 caused the Turks in Mongolia to oust the Avars from their grazing grounds and start their westward migration. This is beyond the bounds of current evidence, and in any case the Avar movement replicates those of the Huns earlier and of the Oguz Turks and Mongols at later times. 5 R. Pallas-Brown, “East Roman perceptions of the Avars in the mid- and late sixth centuries,” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex, Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000), 309–29. 6 P. Lemerle, Les plus ancient miracles de S. Démétrius et la pénétration des Slaves dans les Balkans (Paris, 1981), I, 13–15. 7 The chronology of the main account by Theophylact 5.16.1–6.6.1 is very confused; see the notes to the translation of Michael and Mary Whitby. 8 F. Curta, The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, ca. 500–700 (Cambridge, 2001). 9 B. Bavant, in C. Morrisson (ed.) Le monde byzantin I (Paris, 2004), 337–41.10 N. Christie, The Lombards (Oxford, 1995).11 M. Whittow, The Making of Byzantium 600–1025 (London, 1996), 298–304, with excellent maps.12 P. R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford, 2003), 190–215.13 Alan Cameron, Circus Factions (Oxford, 1976), 265–7, 280–2; W. Liebeschuetz, Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 203–20, 249–57.14 W. Liebeschuetz, Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 269–75.15 C. Morrisson, Le monde byzantin I (Paris, 2004), 40. The fullest ancient account of the revolt against Phocas is by John of Nikiu 107–9; see A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt (Oxford, 1978), 1–53.16 See in general Averil Cameron and L. Conrad (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East I. Problems in the Literary Source Material (Princeton, 1992).17 J. D. Howard-Johnston, “The official history of Heraclius' Persian campaigns,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 57–87.18 Mary Whitby, “A new image for a new age: George of Pisidia on the emperor Heraclius,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 197–225.19 This work survives in an Ethiopic translation of an Arabic version, which in turn derived from a Greek original. It focuses especially on events in Egypt. The English translation by R. H. Charles, John, Bishop of Nikiu: Chronicle (London, 1916) is available online at http://www.ccel.org/p/pearse/morefathers.20 R. W. Thompson and J. D. Howard-Johnston, The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos (2 vols., Liverpool, 1999).21 A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993).22 R. Hoyland, Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam (Liverpool, 2011). However, for an important critique of this reconstruction, arguing that Theophanes was independent of this tradition, see M. Conterno, JRA 24 (2011), 897–912.23 Patricia Crone, Slaves on Horses. The Evolution of the Islamic Polity(Cambridge, 1980), 3–18.24 For the sources as a whole, see James Howard-Johnston, Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and histories of the Middle East in the seventh century (Oxford, 2010) (with the useful short review of A. Kaldellis, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.12.24, and the discussion in Italian of M. Conterno, JRA 24 (2011), 897–912). For a full recent account of the events, see W. E. Kaegi, Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium (Cambridge, 2003). There is a crisp discussion by M. Whittow, The Making of Byzantium 600–1025 (London, 1996), 69–82.25 Chron. Pasch. 614; The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, ch. 34. The fullest account, by Antiochus Strategikos, preserved in a Georgian version of the Greek original, has been translated by F. C. Conybeare, English Historical Review 25 (1910), 502–17 (online at http://www.ccel.org/p/pearse/morefathers).26 A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt (Oxford, 1978), 54–92.27 C. Foss, “The Persians in Asia Minor and the end of antiquity,” English Historical Review 90 (1975), 721–47.28 J. Russell, “The Persian invasion of Syria/Palestine and Asia Minor in the reign of Heraclius: Archaeological, numismatic and epigraphic evidence,” in E. Kountoura-Galake (ed.), The Dark Centuries of Byzantium (7th–9th centuries) (Athens, 2001), 41–71, argues that the impact of the Persian invasions was less dramatic than is suggested by Foss.29 C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003), 149–70.30 See Chron. Pasch. 623 with discussion of the date by Whitby and Whitby in appendix 4 of their translation; Averil Cameron, “The Virgin's robe: An episode in the history of early seventh-century Constantinople,” Byzantion 49 (1979), 42–56.31 J. D. Howard-Johnston, “Heraclius' Persian campaigns and the revival of the east Roman empire,” War in History 6 (1999), 1–44, is particularly important for the chronology and topography.32 J. D. Howard-Johnston, “The siege of Constantinople in 626,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron, Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995), 131–42; Averil Cameron, “Elites and icons in Byzantium,” Past and Present 84 (1979), 3–35, esp. 5–6, 20–4.33 P. Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire (London, 2009), 161–219, is a heroic attempt to decipher these events.34 C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003), 156ff., 164ff.35 M. Whittow, The Making of Byzantium 600–1025 (London, 1996), 64–5.36 Averil Cameron, “Images of Authority: Elites and icons in late sixth-century Byzantium,” Past and Present 84 (1979), 3–35, is the fundamental study. See also Averil Cameron, “The Theotokos in sixth-century Constantinople,” Journal of Theological Studies 39 (1978), 79–108. The themes are explored in detail by M. Meier, Das andere Zeitalter Justinians (Göttingen, 2003), 481–569.37 M. Meier, Das andere Zeitalter Justinians (Göttingen, 2003), 532–8.38 M. Meier, Das andere Zeitalter Justinians (Göttingen, 2003), 489–502. We may compare the development of the rogation rituals in the cities of Frankish Gaul.39 S. Mitchell, Anatolia II (Oxford, 1993), 139–44.40 J. Howard-Johnston, “Heraclius' Persian campaigns and the revival of the East Roman Empire, 622–30,” War in History 6.1 (1999), 37.41 Clive Foss, “The coinage of the first century of Islam,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 16 (2003), 748–60.42 F. M. Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests (Princeton, 1981), 101–11.43 A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt (rev. edn. by P. M. Fraser, Oxford, 1978).44 For a fuller modern summary, see P. Sarris, Empires of Faith (Oxford, 2011), 258–306, and his bibliography pp. 401–6.45 F. M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins. The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing (Princeton, 1998) adopts a more optimistic view than Patricia Crone, Slaves on Horses (Cambridge, 1980), 3–18.46 R. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It. A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam (Princeton, 1997).47 R. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Princeton, 1997), 55–61. G. Dagron and V. Deroche, “Juifs et chrétiens dans l'Orient du VIIe siècle,” Travaux et Mémoires 11 (1991), 17–293 for a full edition and discussion of the Doctrina Iacobi.