Ancient History & Civilisation


  1 R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (New Haven, 1964).  2 See D. H. French, “The Roman road-system of Asia Minor,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.7.2 (1981), 698–729, especially diagram 7 showing huge peaks for milestones set up under Septimius Severus, the tetrarchs and Constantine.  3 Anne Kolb, Transport und Nachrichtentransfer im römischen Reich (Berlin, 2000); S. Mitchell, “Horse-Breeding for the Cursus Publicus in the later Roman Empire,” in A. Kolb (ed.), Infrastructure as a means of government? Interaction between state and municipality (Berlin, 2014), 246–60.  4 See the Portus archaeological project, directed by Simon Keay, (accessed March 3, 2014).  5 A. Wilson, “Machines, power and the ancient economy,” JRS 92 (2002), 1–32.  6 J. Edmundson, “Mining in the later Roman Empire: Continuity or disruption?” JRS 79 (1989), 84–102.  7 J. Howard-Johnston, “The education and expertise of Procopius,” Ant. Tard. 8 (2000), 19–30.  8 A. H. M. Jones, “Taxation in antiquity,” in A. H. M. Jones (ed. P. A. Brunt), The Roman Economy (Oxford, 1974), 151–86. Peter Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006), is indispensable for the sixth century.  9 G. Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth. Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993), 45–50.10 H. Brandt, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit von Diokletian bis zum Ende der konstantinischen Dynastie (Berlin, 1998), 69–72.11 For Constantine's Roman churches, see A. Logan, “Constantine, the Liber Pontificalis and the Christian basilicas of Rome,” Studia Patristica 50 (2010), 31–53, and T. D. Barnes, Constantine (Oxford, 2011), 85–9.12 See G. W. Bowersock, “Peter and Constantine,” in “Humana Sapit”. Études d’antiquité tardive offertes à Lellia Cracco Ruggini (Paris, 2002), 209–17, and in W. Tronzo (ed.), St Peter's in the Vatican(Cambridge, 2005), 5–15. For the architecture and setting, see R. R. Holloway, Constantine and Rome (New Haven and London, 2003), 57–119.13 See G. Fowden, “Nicagoras of Athens and the Lateran obelisk,” JHS 107 (1987), 51–7.14Andrew Gillett, “Rome, Ravenna and the last western emperors,” Papers of the British School at Rome 69 (2001), 131–67.15 For Rome see the essays in Lucy Grig and Gavin Kelly (eds.), Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2012), with the review of R. Van Dam, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2012.11.57, which emphasizes the demographic decline; for a similar picture in Rome's hinterland, see B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome (Oxford, 2005), 138–41.16 Discussion by J. Vanderspoel, Themistius and the Imperial Court. Oratory, Civic Duty and Paideia from Constantius to Theodosius (Michigan, 1995), 51–61.17 T. D. Barnes, Constantine (Oxford, 2011), 127, citing Eusebius, VC 3.48.2 and Palladas, Anth. Plan. 282 and Anth. Pal. 10.56.18 M. Whitby, “The violence of the circus factions,” in K. Hopwood (ed.), Organized Crime in Antiquity (Wales, 1999), 229–53.19 D. Feissel, “Le philadelphion de Constantinople. Inscription et écrits patriographiques,” Comptes-rendus de l’Académie des inscription et belles lettres (2003), 495–521.20 See J. F. Matthews, “The Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae,” in Lucy Grig and Gavin Kelly (eds.), Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2012), 81–115.21 C. Mango, “The Water Supply of Constantinople,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995), 9–18. The aqueduct system has been investigated by J. Crow and A. Ricci, “Investigating the hinterland of Constantinople. Interim report on the Anastasian long wall,” JRA 10 (1997), 253–62; J. Crow, J. Bardill, and R. Bayliss, The Water Supply of Byzantine Constantinople (JRS Monograph 11, London, 2008).22 N. Asgari, “Proconnesian production of architectural elements in late antiquity,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995), 263–88.23 W. Lebek, Epigraphica Anatolica 25 (1995), 107–53.24 C. Foss and D. Winfield, Byzantine Fortifications (Pretoria, 1986); W. Karnapp and A. M. Schneider, Die Stadtmauer von Konstantinopel; A. M. Schneider, “The city walls of Constantinople” Antiquity 11 (1937), 461ff.25 M. Harrison, A Temple for Byzantium (London, 1989) is an account of the excavation of this building and its interpretation.26 Procopius, Buildings 1.1.20–78. Paul Silentarius, Ekphrasis. See Mary Whitby, “The occasion of Paul the silentiary's Ekphrasis of St. Sophia,” Classical Quarterly 35 (1985), 216–28; for a discussion and partial translation of the work of Paul Silentiarius, see P. N. Bell, Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian (Liverpool, 2009), 79–97 and 189–212.27 J. F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court (Oxford, 1990), 101–21.28 Socrates, HE 2.13; A. H. M. Jones, Later Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1964), 698.29 J.-M. Carrié, “Les distributions alimentaires dans les cités de l’empire romain tardif,” Mélanges de l’école française de Rome – antiqutité 87 (1985), 995–1101; J. Rea, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri 40 (1979).30 See especially J. Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. Gold, labour and aristocratic dominance (Oxford, 2001): P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006), 149–99.31 W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch (Oxford, 1972), 92–100.32 C. Haas, Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict (Baltimore, 1997). R. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993), based on rigorous analysis of documentary sources, deliberately excludes Alexandria from consideration.33 An illustrated account in R. Bagnall and D. Rathbone (eds.), Egypt from Alexander to the Copts. An Archaeological and Historical Guide (London, 2004), 51–86.34 J. Mackenzie, “Glimpsing Alexandria from archaeological evidence,” JRA 16 (2003), 35–63.35 T. D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Harvard, 1981), 17–20.36 J. McKenzie, S. Gibson, and A. T. Reyes, “Reconstructing the Serapeum in Alexandria from the archaeological evidence,” JRS 94 (2004), 73–121; G. Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth (Princeton, 1993), 44–5.37 Sozomen, HE 7.15; cf. Socrates, HE 5.16–17; Theodoret, HE 5.22; Rufinus, HE 11.22–27.38 See K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 98–100.39 For discussion see R. Alston, The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt (London, 2002), 285–92.40 CTh. 16.2.42, 43.41 W. Frend, The Donatist Church (Oxford, 1952), 25–31.42 C. Lepelley, “The survival and fall of the classical city in late Roman Africa,” in Aspectes de l’Afrique romaine. Les cités, la vie rurale, et le christianisme (Bari, 2001), 85–104.43 Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton, 1976), 201–2.44 Victor of Vita I, 12–14; Procopius, Bell. Vand. 3.5.11–17.45 Theodoret, ep. 2, 29, 33, 34; Life of Fulgentius of Ruspa (ed. G. Lapeyre 1929), 1.46 Y. Modéran, “L’etablissement territorial des Vandales en Afrique,” Ant. Tard. 10 (2002), 87–122.47 W. Frend, The Archaeology of Early Christianity. A History (London, 1996, repr. 1997), 316–17; W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 101, 377.48 D. van Berchem, “Le port de Séleucie de Piérie et l’infrastructure navale des guerres parthiques,” Bonner Jahrbücher 135 (1985), 47–87.49 W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 75–6.50 SEG 35 (1985) 1523; G. Dagron, “Un tarif des sportules à payer aux curiosi du port de Séleucie de Pisidie,” Travaux et Mémoires 9 (1985), 435–55; P. Petit, Libanius et la vie municipale à Antioche au IVe siècle après J.-C. (Paris, 1955), 305–22; G. Downey, “The economic crisis at Antioch under Julian the apostate,” Studies in Honour of A. C. Johnson (Princeton, 1951), 312–21.51 Julian, Misopogon 369–70; W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 127–8.52 Justinian, Nov. VII.8 with W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 129.53 W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 167–92; J. Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, labour and aristocratic dominance (Oxford, 2001).54 W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 192–208.55 D. Levi, Antioch Mosaic Pavements (Princeton, 1947).56 J. Hahn, Gewalt und Religiöser Konflikt (Berlin, 2004), 122.57 R. L. Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century (Berkeley, 1983).58 R. Browning. “The riot of AD 387 in Antioch: The role of the theatrical claques in the later empire,” JRS 42 (1952), 13–20; P. Brown, Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity (Wisconsin, 1992), 105–8; H. Leppin, “Pagan and Christian interpretations of riot,” in H. Brandt (ed.), Gedeutete Realität. Krisen, Wirklichkeiten, Interpretationen 3–6 Jht. n. Chr. (Historia Einzelschr. 134, Stuttgart, 1999), 103–23.59 Michael Whitby, “Procopius and Antioch,” in D. French and C. S. Lightfoot (eds.), The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire (2 vols., Oxford, 1989), 537–53.

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