1 M. McCormick, Eternal Victory. Triumphal rulership in late antiquity, Byzantium and the Early Medieval West (Cambridge, 1986); Sabine MacCormack, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1981). 2 The ability of imperial powers to impose universal taxation is a key principle of Chris Wickham's analysis in Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), esp. 56–160; see pp. 469–75. 3 J. Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1999). 4 Clifford Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2000). 5 F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 214–24. 6 John Matthews, Laying Down the Law (New Haven, 2000), 31–54. 7 Alan Cameron, Circus Factions (Oxford, 1976), 237–44; H.-U. Wiemer, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 86 (2004), 35–44, 66–73 (German translation of the Syriac original). 8 C. Roueché, “Acclamations in the later Roman empire: New evidence from Aphrodisias,” JRS 74 (1984), 181–99. 9 Alan Cameron, Circus Factions, 318–33.10 H.-U. Wiemer, “Akklamationen im spätrömischen Reich. Zur Typologie und Funktion eines Kommunikationsrituals,” Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 86 (2004), 27–73, is the best modern discussion.11 See Averil Cameron and Stuart Hall, Eusebius, Life of Constantine (Oxford, 1999), 27–39; H. A. Drake, In Praise of Constantine. A historical study and new translation of Eusebius' Tricennalian Orations (Berkeley, 1976).12 J. Curran, Pagan City and Christian Capital. Rome in the Fourth Century (Oxford, 2000), 86–90; J. Elsner, “From the culture of spolia to the cult of relics: The arch of Constantine and the genius of late antique Rome,” PBSR 68 (2000), 149–84; R. R. Holloway, Constantine and Rome (New Haven, 2004).13 F. Kolb, Herrscherideologie in der Spätantike (Berlin, 2001), 225–42.14 Alan Cameron, “Consular diptychs in their social context,” JRA 11 (1998), 385–403.15 E. Kitzinger, Byzantine Art in the Making. Main Lines of Stylistic Development in Mediterranean Art 3rd–7th Century (Cambridge Mass., 1977), 96, 176; see the excellent Wikipedia entry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barberini_ivory (accessed Feb 28, 2014).16 B. Dignas and E. Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 63–94.17 For the Sassanian reliefs, see G. Herrmann, The Iranian Revival (Oxford, 1977).18 A. H. M. Jones, Later Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1964), 683–4.19 A. H. M. Jones, Later Roman Empire I, 679–89; discussion by D. Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay (London, 2004), 455–9, for the fourth century.20 The best recent survey of the late Roman army is by Michael Whitby, “Recruitment in Roman armies from Justinian to Heraclius (ca 565–615),” in Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III (Princeton, 1995), 61–124, which is more wide-ranging in chronology and subject matter than its title suggests. Hugh Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425 (Oxford, 1996), is an excellent study of the evidence from the early part of late antiquity, and debunks many commonly held views. See also M. Whitby, Rome at War AD 293–696 (Oxford, 2002); A. D. Lee, War in Late Antiquity: A Social History (Oxford, 2007).21 For the heavy dependence of the Romans on barbarian foederati and barbarian allies, see W. Liebeschuetz, “The end of the Roman army in the western empire” (ch. X) for the early fifth century, and “The Romans demilitarised: the evidence of Procopius” (ch. XI) for the period of Justinian's Gothic wars, in Decline and Change in Late Antiquity (London, 2006).22 For the fourth century see R. MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, 1988), 199–204.23 H. Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425, 129–34.24 T. D. Barnes, Constantine (Oxford, 2011), 155–7.25 R. M. Errington, “Theodosius and the Goths,” Chiron 26 (1996), 1–27; Roman Imperial Policy (Chapel Hill, 2006), 64–6.26 E. A. Thompson, The Huns (Oxford, 1996), index s.v. Aetius; T. Stickler, Aetius. Gestaltungsspielräume eines Heermeisters im ausgehenden weströmischen Reich (2002).27 P. MacGeorge, Late Roman Warlords (Oxford, 2002).28 The complexity of these categories emerges from H. Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425, 91–4.29 See the ORBIS website devised by W. Scheidel, which illustrates the speed, expense, and accessibility of the Roman imperial communications network, http://orbis.stanford.edu/# (accessed Feb 28, 2014).30 R. W. Bulliet, The Camel and the Wheel (Cambridge Mass., 1975); D. F. Graf, “Camels, roads and wheels in late antiquity,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), Donum Amicitiae. Studies in Ancient History (Electrum 1, Krakow, 1997), 43–9.31 T. C. Skeat, Two Papyri from Panopolis in the Chester Beatty Library (Dublin, 1964); C. Adams, “Transition and change in Diocletian's Egypt: Province and empire in the late third century,” in S. Swain and M. Edwards (eds.), Approaching Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2004), 82–108.32 S. Mitchell, “The cities of Asia Minor in the age of Constantine,” in S. N. C. Lieu and D. Montserrat (eds.), Constantine. History, Historiography and Legend (London, 1998), 52–6.33 For recent survey reports see S. Mitchell, in JHS Archaeological Reports 45 (1998/9), 173.34 S. Mitchell, Anatolia II (Oxford, 1993), 122–4.35 T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge Mass., 1982), 227–32.36 See A. H. M. Jones, “Taxation in antiquity,” in Jones (ed. P. A. Brunt), The Roman Economy (Oxford, 1974), 151–86; The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 411–69.37 A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 819–23; Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 64–6.38 The inscription is accessible as Année épigraphique 1984, 250; 2003, 359; 2008, 417; originally published by A. Giardino and F. Grelle, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome (Antiquité) 95 (1983), 249–303; important discussion by C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 67, and S. Schmidt-Hofner, Reagieren und Gestalten. Der Regierungsstil des spätrömischen Kaisers am Beispiel der Gesetzgebung Valentinians I. (Munich, 2008), 64–71.39 See Evagrius 3.39. The law itself is cited at CJust. 11.1.1–2.40 T. D. Barnes, Constantine (Oxford, 2011), 157–63.41 R. M. Errington, Roman Imperial Policy (Chapel Hill, 2006), 80–87.42 D. Feissel, “Un rescrit de Justinien découvert à Didymes,” Chiron 34 (2004), 285–365.43 See Jill Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1999); Jill Harries and Ian Wood (eds.), The Theodosian Code: Studies in the Imperial Law of Late Antiquity (London, 1993); Simon Corcoran, The Empire of the Tetrarchs, Imperial Pronouncements and Government AD 284–324 (Oxford, 2000); J. F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law (New Haven, 2000).44 John Lydus, de mag. 3.19–20; see C. M. Kelly, “Later Roman bureaucracy: Going through the files,” in A. Bowman and G. Woolf (eds.), Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge, 1994), 161–76.45 For the administrative and political workings of the empire see now the detailed studies of Fergus Millar, F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire. Power and Belief under Theodosius II, 408–50 (Berkeley, 2006), and D. Feissel in C. Morrisson (ed.), Le Monde Byzantin I (Paris, 2004), 79–110.46 F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 1–38.47 R. R. R. Smith, “Late antique portraits in a public context: Honorific statuary at Aphrodisias in Caria,” JRS 89 (1999), 185–8.48 A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship (2nd edn. Oxford, 1974).49 P. Garnsey, Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1970).50 S. Mitchell, “Ethnicity, acculturation and empire in Roman and late Roman Asia Minor,” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex (eds.), Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000), 117–50 at 137–8; see J. G. Keenan, ZPE 11 (1973), 33–63; 13 (1974), 283–304; 53 (1983), 245–50.51 Alan Cameron, “Polyonymy in the late Roman aristocracy: The case of Petronius Probus,” JRS 75 (1985), 164–82; Benet Salway, “What's in a Roman name? A survey of Roman onomastic practice from c.700 BC to AD 700,” JRS 84 (1994), 124–45.52 P. Garnsey and C. Humfress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World (Cambridge, 2001), chapter 4; T. Honoré, “Roman law AD 200–400: From cosmopolis to Rechtstaat,” and P. Garnsey, “Roman citizenship and Roman law in the late empire,” in S. Swain and M. Edwards (eds.), Approaching Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2004), 109–32, 133–55.53 G. Greatrex, “Roman identity in the sixth century,” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex (eds.), Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000), 267–92.54Fergus Millar, “Empire and city, Augustus to Julian: Obligations, excuses and status,” JRS 73 (1983), 76–96; reprinted in Rome, the Greek World and the East, Volume 2 (Chapel Hill, 2004), 336–71.55 Fergus Millar, “The Greek East and Roman law; The dossier of M. Cn. Licinius Rufinus,” JRS 89 (1999), 90–108; reprinted in Rome, the Greek World and the East, Volume 2, 435–64.56 A. Laniado, Recherches sur les notables municipaux dans l'empire protobyzantine (Paris, 2002); usefully reviewed by F. Haarer, JRA 17 (2004), 735–40.57 C. Roueché, GRBS 20 (1979), 173–85; C. Roueché, Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (1989), 77–8; D. Feissel, Inscriptions de Cilicie (Paris, 1987), 215–20.58 See especially W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 104–36. For the curiales see A. Laniado, Recherches sur les notables municipaux dans l'empire protobyzantine (Paris, 2002).59 On the formal organization of late Roman society, see above all A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1964), 523–62, and A. Demandt, Die Spätantike (Berlin, 1989), 276–96. My discussion is heavily dependent on these.60 J. F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court (2nd edn. Oxford, 1990), 1–31; A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1964), 523–62; A. Demandt, Die Spätantike (Berlin, 1989), 276–88.61 M. Horster, “Ehrungen spätantiker Statthalter,” Ant. Tard. 6 (1998), 37–59.62 The fundamental discussion of these epigrams in L. Robert, Epigrammes du Bas-Empire, Hellenica IV (1948).63 C. Roueché, Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (1989), nos. 36–52, 62–5; R. R. R. Smith, “Late antique portraits in a public context: Honorific statuary at Aphrodisias in Caria,” JRS 89 (1999), 155–89; R. R. R. Smith, “The statue monument of Oecumenius: A new portrait of a late antique governor from Aphrodisias,” JRS 92 (2002), 134–56.64 For the phenomenon at Ephesus, see C. Foss, “Stephanus, proconsul of Asia, and related statues,” Okeanos. Essays for I. Sevçenko (Harvard Ukrainian Studies 7 1983), 196–217, reprinted in History and Archaeology of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot, 1990), ch. 3.65 S. Huebner, Der Klerus in der Gesellschaft des spätantiken Kleinasiens (Stuttgart, 2005); K. A. Worp, “On the Aureliate of clergy and monks,” ZPE 151 (2005), 145–52.66 Alan Cameron, “Poetry and literary culture in late antiquity,” in S. Swain and M. Edwards, Approaching Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2004), 327–54.67 P. Brown, Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity (Wisconsin, 1992).68 This is important for understanding the culture both of the Roman senatorial class in the later fourth century and of their counterparts in sixth-century Constantinople, as is shown by Alan Cameron, The Last Pagans of Rome (Oxford, 2011) and A. Kaldellis, Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition (Cambridge, 2011).69 R. MacMullen, “Cultural changes and political changes in the 4th and 5th centuries AD,” Historia 52 (2003), 465–95; see also P. Heather, “Literacy and power in the migration period,” in A. Bowman and G. Woolf (eds.), Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge, 1994), 177–97.