Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

    1 But see Andrew Gillett, “Rome, Ravenna and the last western emperors,” Papers of the British School at Rome 69 (2001), 131–67, for the evidence that Rome once more served as an imperial residence through the middle of the fifth century.    2 R. M. Errington, Roman Imperial Policy (Chapel Hill, 2006), 13–42 (dynastic politics) and 79–110 (government and law-making).    3 E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1929).    4 A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1964), 173.    5 Meaghan A. McEvoy, Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West, AD 367–455 (Oxford, 2013).    6 See K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982).    7 See Alan Cameron, “The empress and the poet: Paganism and politics at the court of Theodosius II,” Yale Classical Studies 27 (1982), 217–89; F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 192–234.    8 E. A. Thompson, The Huns (rev. edn. Oxford, 1996), 203–24.    9 A positive judgment in Evagrius 1.19.  10 Alan Cameron, “The empress and the poet: Paganism and politics at the court of Theodosius II,” Yale Classical Studies 27 (1982), 240–2.  11 CIL III 734 = ILS 823; Marcellinus comes 447.  12 M. Whitby, “The long walls of Constantinople,” Byzantion 55 (1985), 560–83; J. Crow, “The long walls of Thrace,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995), 109–24; J. Crow and A. Ricci, “Investigating the hinterland of Constantinople. An interim report on the Anastasian long wall,” JRA 10 (1997), 232–62.  13 K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 110; B. Croke, “Evidence for the Hun invasion of Thrace in AD 422,” GRBS 18 (1977), 347–67.  14 K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 130–46.  15 G. Zecchini, “Teodosio II nella storiografia ecclesiastica,” Mediterraneo Antico 5 (2002), 529–46; J. Harries, “Pius Princeps: Theodosius II and fifth-century Constantinople,” in P. Magdalino (ed.), New Constantines (Belfast, 1994), 35–44.  16 C. Kelly, CAH 13, 172–80; Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge Mass., 2004), ch. 4; “Empire building,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity(Cambridge Mass., 1999), 170–95, esp.178ff. Kelly offers a more positive appraisal of corruption than R. MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, 1988), 122–70.  17 F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 36–8, 226–7.  18 E. Schwartz, Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum I.1.1, 42–72.  19 K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 130–74, for the Marian cult and Pulcheria's powerful influence.  20 K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 175–216; Alan Cameron, “The empress and the poet,” Yale Classical Studies 27 (1982), 217–89.  21 Malalas 361, 14–362.18. Chron. Pasch. 450 has a detailed but wrongly placed account of Cyrus.  22 F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire(Berkeley, 2006), 192–201.  23 J. F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law (New Haven, 2000); T. D. Barnes, “Theodosian Code,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 721–2.  24 See T. Urbaincsyk, Socrates of Constantinople. Historian of Church and State (Ann Arbor, 1997), a clear and perceptive study.  25 Orosius 7.40.10; Chron. Min. II.18.  26 P. Heather, Goths and Romans (Oxford, 1991), 221–5; P. Heather, “The emergence of the Visigothic kingdom,” in H. Elton and J. Drinkwater, Fifth-Century Gaul. A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge, 1992).  27 P. Heather, “The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in the West,” EHR (1995), 4–41, a sophisticated and detailed analysis, which attempts a global explanation of the collapse of the western empire, spanning a century of events from 376 to 476. See now his full treatment in The Fall of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 2005), chaps. 7–14. B. B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome(Oxford, 2005), chaps. 2–5, esp. p.43, emphasizes the devastating and immediate consequences of the barbarian invasion of 406–7.  28 Greg. Tur. 2.8, quoting from the history of Renatus Frigeridus, provides an important summary of Aetius' life.  29 Jordanes, Get. XLIX, 254–8 on the death and funeral of Attila.  30 Hydatius, Chronicle 49. For the earlier history of the Vandals, see H. Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples (Berkeley, 1997), 159–63.  31 Victor of Vita 1.1. For the origins, early history, and ethnic definition of the Vandals, see W. Pohl, “The Vandals: fragments of a narrative,” in A. Merrills (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers. New perspectives on late antique North Africa (London, 2004), 31–48. W. Goffart, Romans and Barbarians AD 418–584. Techniques of Accommodation (1980), 231–5, argues that the figure of 80,000 is historically baseless.  32 H. Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples (California, 1997), 166; W. Liebeschuetz, “Gens into regnum: the Vandals,” in his collected papers, Decline and Change in Late Antiquity. Religion, barbarians and their historiography (London, 2006), ch. XIV.  33 Chron. Min. 1, 474; Isidore, Historia Vandalorum 74.  34 A. Merrills and R. Miles, The Vandals (Oxford, 2010), is now the standard modern account in English.  35 Evagrius 2.1 with Whitby's note; K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982), 208–9; R. W. Burgess, “The accession of Marcian,” Byz. Zeitschr. 86/7 (1993/4), 47–68 emphasizes the role of Aspar.  36 Council of Chalcedon canon 28; trans in J. Stevenson, Creeds, Councils and Controversies (London, 1989), 361–2 no. 248; the issue was discussed at the sixteenth session of the council; see the commentary and translation of R. W. Price and M. Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon vol. 3, 67–91.  37 John Lydus de mag. 3.43. R. L. Hohlfelder. “Marcian's gamble: A reassessment of eastern imperial policy towards Attila,” American Journal of Ancient History 9, 1 (1984), 54–69.  38 J. Rougé, “Les Isauriens au IVe siècle,” REA; J. F. Matthews, The Roman World of Ammianus Marcellinus (London, 1989); B. D. Shaw, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 33 (1990), 199–233, 237–70; H. Elton “The Isaurians in the sixth century” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex, Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000), 293–307; N. Lenski, “Assimilation and Revolt in the Territory of Isauria,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 42 (1999), 413–65; K. Feld, Barbarische Bürger. Die Isaurier und das römische Reich (Berlin, 2005).  39 John Malalas 371, 9–372, 2; Chron. Pasch. 467; Candidus fr. 1.  40 John of Antioch fr. 201, 6 (FHG IV, 615); Marcellinus comes I, 304.  41 Sidonius Apollinaris, carm 7, 297, 316. This is from Sidonius' panegyric of Avitus.  42 Majorian's martial virtues are highlighted in Sidonius' panegyric, carm. 5. For another side of his character, see Sidonius' long account of attending an imperial banquet with Majorian and his court in 461, ep. 1.11.  43 Sidonius delivered a panegyric for Anthemius, carm. 2, when he took the consulship in January 468, and was in Rome for the wedding of Ricimer and the emperor's daughter Alypia, ep. 1.5 and 1.9.  44 F. M. Clover, “The family and early career of Anicius Olybrius,” Historia 27 (1978), 169–96 = The Late Roman West and the Vandals (Variorum, 1993) III.  45 Priscus fr. 65; John of Antioch fr. 209.2; cf. the epitome of Malchus by Photius, Blockley, Malchus testimonia 1.  46 Jordanes, Get. 237f.; Sidonius ep. 3.9; 3.17.3.  47 Anon. Val. 37; Chron. Min. 1. 308.  48 F. M. Clover, “Carthage and the Vandals,” in The Later Roman West and the Vandals (Aldershot, 1993), VI, 13.  49 Candidus fr. 2; Procopius, Bell. Vand. 3.6.2 gives an even higher figure.  50 These events have been treated in detail by P. Heather, Goths and Romans (Oxford, 1991), 272–308. See also W. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990), 80–3, for a comparison between these events and the role played by Alaric.  51 For the complicated feud between Zeno and Illus, see K. Feld, Barbarische Bürger (Berlin, 2005), 265–77; see further H. Elton, “Illus and the imperial aristocracy under Zeno.” Byzantion 70 (2000), 393–407.  52 W. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops, 58–64; P. Heather, Goths and Romans (Oxford, 1991), 304–8.  53 Eugippius, Life of Severinus; Anon. Val. 10.45–47.  54 Fiona Haarer, Anastasius I. Politics and Empire in the Late Roman World (Cambridge, 2006); M. Meier, Anastasios I. Die Entstehung des Byzantinischen Reiches (Stuttgart, 2009).  55 See S. Mitchell, “Olive production in Roman Asia Minor,” in S. Mitchell and C. Katsari (eds.), Patterns in the Economy of Roman Asia Minor (Wales and London, 2005), 83–113 at 102.  56 For events in Isauria, see F. Hild and H. Hellenkemper, Tabula Imperii Byzantini: Kilikien und Isaurien, vol. 1 (1990), 40–2.  57 Evagrius, HE 3.38; Justinian, Nov. 26 pr (535); James Crow, “The long walls of Thrace,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995), 109–24; “Silivri and the Thracian hinterland of Istanbul: an historic Landscape,” Anatolian Studies 59 (2009), 167–81.  58 Much of the information in Malalas is also duplicated in Chron. Pasch. For a modern account see C. Capizzi, L'imperatore Anastasio I (491–518). Studio sulla sua vita, la sua opera e la sua personalità (1969).  59 Collectio Avellana (this is a collection of imperial and papal letters covering the period 367–553) 113.4; Anon. Val. 64.  60 See the excellent Wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitalian_(general) (accessed February 28, 2014).  61 Fiona Nicks, “Literary culture in the reign of Anastasius I,” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex, Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000), 183–203, a good survey of the cultural climate, including the use of Greek and Latin.  62 Evagrius, HE 3.39 is the fullest account (see Whitby's commentary). For Edessa see the Ps-Joshua, Chron. 31. For the abolition of the chrysargyron as a high point of the panegyrics of Priscian and Procopius of Gaza, see Alain Chauvot, Procope de Gaza, Priscien de Césarée. Panégyriques de l'empéreur Anastase 1e (1986).  63 Whitby, note on Evagrius, HE 3.42, collects the references.  64 B. Dignas and E. Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 221–31.  65 G. J. Reinink, “Babai the Great's Life of George and the propagation of doctrine in the late Sassanian empire,” in J. W. Drijvers and J. W. Watt, Portraits of Spiritual Authority in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 1999), 171–93.  66 Menander prot. fr. 11.  67 G. Fowden, From Empire to Commonwealth (Princeton, 1993), 121–4.  68 Procopius, Bell. Pers. 1.1–10. An agreement in the reverse direction was declined, on advice by Justin I in 518, when Cabades proposed that he should adopt his third son Chosroes. The suggestion was quashed by the objections of the quaestor Proclus, who gave extremely cautious lawyer's advice: such a move would effectively make Chosroes heir to the Roman Empire itself. The plan was dropped; Procopius, Bell. Pers. 1 11.1–25.  69 Malalas 14, 23 (p. 364); cf. Sozomen 9.4.1; Eudoxia wrote a poem to celebrate the Roman triumph, Socrates 7.21.8.  70 Priscus fr. 47; Ps-Joshua, Chron. 8. R. C. Blockley. “Subsidies and diplomacy: Rome and Persia in late antiquity,” Phoenix 39 (1985), 62–74; Z. Rubin, “Diplomacy and war in the relations between Byzantium and the Sassanids in the fifth century AD,” in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (eds.), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford, 1986), 677–95. In the sixth century, in 562, another resolution was found: the Sassanids were to be responsible for opposing Huns, Alans, and other barbarians in the Caucasus, while the Romans were to send no more troops to the region and to give up their influence there, Menander prot. fr. 11 (FHG IV, 206–17). For an analysis of developments in this region during the fifth and sixth centuries see D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity (Oxford, 1994), 268–314.  71 Ps-Joshua, Chron. 18; 20. Cf. E. Winter and B. Dignas, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 186–7.  72 Procopius, Bell Pers. 1.7.1–4; Ps-Joshua, Chron. 20, 24; G. Greatrex, Rome and Persia at War 502–32 (Liverpool, 1998), 73ff; P. Sarris, Empires of Faith (Oxford, 2011), 131–4.  73 Evagrius 3.37; Zacharias of Mytilene, HE 7.6.; Malalas 16, 10 (p. 399); B. Croke and J Crow, “Procopius and Dara,” JRS 73 (1983), 143–69 argue that Procopius is highly misleading, attributing to Justinian construction for which Anastasius seems to have been responsible; L. M. Whitby, “Procopius' description of Dara (Buildings II. 1–3),” in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy, The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford, 1986), 737–83.  74 L. M. Whitby, “The Persian king at war,” in E. Dabrowa, The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 227–63.  75 On Justin I see Klaus Rosen, “Justin I,” Reallexicon für Antike und Christentum 19 (1999), 763–78.  76 De caer. 1.3; Malalas 17.2 (against the official version), see discussion by J. B. Bury, Later Roman Empire II (London, 1923), 15–19.  77 J. B. Bury, The Later Roman Empire II, 19.  78 Procopius, Bell. Pers. 1.1.3; 1.12.24.  79 Averil Cameron, Procopius in the Sixth Century (London, 1985), 13–15.  80 A. Kaldellis, Procopius of Caesarea. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity (Philadelphia, 2004).  81 See B. Croke and J. Crow, “Procopius and Dara,” JRS 73 (1983), 143–59.  82 Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London, 1985), 49–66, especially 63–5.  83 G. Dagron, “Aux origines de la civilisation byzantine: langue de culture et langue d'état,” Revue historique 241 (1969), 23–56; F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 20–5, 84–107.  84 G. Downey, Constantinople in the Age of Justinian(Oklahoma, 1960), 68–79; D. Liebs, CAH 14, 238–59.  85 W. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge, 1972), 284ff.  86 Michael Whitby, “John of Ephesus,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 526–7. For his mission to convert the pagans in Asia Minor, see Michael Whitby, “John of Ephesus and the pagans: Pagan survivals in the sixth century,” in M. Salamon (ed.), Paganism in the Later Roman Empire and in Byzantium(Krakow, 1991), 111–32.  87 W. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990), 147.  88 CAH 14, 478, 598.  89 S. Mitchell, “An apostle to Ankara from the new Jerusalem. Jews and Montanists in late Roman Asia Minor,” Scripta Classica Israelica 24 (2005), 207–23.  90 For a comprehensive study of the documentary evidence for Montanism in Asia Minor, see W. Tabbernnee, Montanist Inscriptions and Testimonia. Epigraphic Sources Illustrating the History of Montanism (Washington, 1997).  91 Alan Cameron, “The last days of the Academy at Athens,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 195 (1969), 7–29; Edward Watts, “Justinian, Malalas, and the end of Athenian philosophical teaching,” JRS94 (2004), 168–82; R. Lane Fox, “Movers and shakers,” in A. Smith (ed.), The Philosopher and Society in Late Antiquity (Swansea, 2005), 19–50 at 32–41. R. Lane Fox, “Harran. The Sabians, and late-Platonist ‘movers’,” in A. Smith (ed.), The Philosopher and Society in Late Antiquity (Swansea, 2005), 231–44, refutes the supposition that the philosophers returned to the empire in 532 and settled at the pagan stronghold of Carrhae in Mesopotamia.  92 Malalas 17, 413–14; D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity (Oxford, 1994), 271–87.  93 Malalas 18, 433–4; see J. B. Bury, Later Roman Empire II (London, 1923), 322–7.  94 Malalas 18, 461–5; Procopius, Bell. Pers. 1.17–18; see Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London, 1985), 146–7; 157–8.  95 J. B. Bury, “The Nika riot,” JHS 17 (1897), 92–119, is a famous and fundamental treatment, matched a century later by G. Greatrex, “The Nika riot: A reappraisal,” JHS 117 (1997), 60–86. All the standard works on the later empire and on Justinian contain substantial discussions. The most radical modern analysis is by M. Meier, “Die Inszenierung einer Katastrophe: Justinian und der Nika-Aufstand,” ZPE 142 (2003), 273–300.  96 G. Greatrex, JHS 117 (1997), 63–7.  97 Alan Cameron, Circus Factions (Oxford, 1976); Michael Whitby, “The violence of the circus factions,” in K. Hopwood (ed.), Organised Crime in Antiquity (Wales, 1998), 229–53; W. Liebeschuetz, “The circus factions,” Convegno per Santo Mazzarino, Roma 9–11 Maggio 1991 (Saggi di storia antica 13, 2002), 163–85; W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), index s.v. factions.  98 M. Meier, ZPE 142 (2003), 275–6.  99 R. Cormack, CAH 14, 902–5.100 See Mary Whitby, “The occasion of Paul the Silentiary's ekphrasis of St Sophia,” Classical Quarterly 35 (1985), 215–28. There is a discussion and partial translation of the poem in P. N. Bell, Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian (Liverpool, 2009), 79–95 and 189–212, and translation of the descriptive sections in C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire (1986), 80–91.101 J. B. Bury, Later Roman Empire II (London, 1923), 124–50.102 M. McCormick, Eternal Victory. Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium and the Early Medieval West (Cambridge, 1986), 65, 125; M. Meier, ZPE 138 (2002), 287.103 Procopius, Bell. Vand. 4.19.3–4 summarizes his virtues, but needs to be read with a critical eye, as Procopius was a close associate and admirer of Solomon.104 See the sculpted head reproduced by R. Browning, Justinian and Theodora (1971), fig. 6.105 Procopius, Bell. Goth. 6.1–2. He claims to have catalogued 67 Gothic–Roman engagements up to December 536, the end of the second year of the war, which were to be followed by two final ones before the siege was lifted (Bell. Goth. 6.2.37–8).

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