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Glossary

Transliterated Greek words (printed in italics) are given in the singular, with the plural ending added in parentheses.

acropolis ‘high city’ , the hill - top citadel of a state.

agora the main square of a state, used for political and for com- mercial purposes.

amphictyony ‘body of neighbours’ , particularly neighbours of a major sanctuary with responsibility for it, e.g. the Delphic Amphictyony (cf. pp. 50, 290) , the fourth - century Athenian and Andrian amphictyons of Delos (cf. p. 262).

archon title of an official, particularly at Athens, where in a broader sense there were nine archons, one of them given the specific title archon; more broadly still, used of offi-cials in general.

Areopagus Athenian council (whose meeting place the Areopagus was) comprising all living former archons (in the broader sense indicated above) (cf. pp. 40 – 6).

assembly in Athens and some other states ekklesia (- iai) , but other states used other words: meeting of all adult male citizens of a state, who satisfied whatever were the requirements for full citizenship in that state.

asthetairos (- oi) title given to some regiments in the infantry phalanx of Alexander the Great (cf. p. 402).

autokrator (-ores) ‘with full powers’ , a term sometimes applied to generals and others, but it was not always spelled out in what ways and to what extent their powers were increased (cf. p. 133).

boeotarch title of the principal officials of the Boeotian federation, numbering eleven before 386 (cf. p. 281) , seven after 379 (cf. pp. 283 – 4).

choregos (-oi) Athenian performing the liturgy (see below) of taking financial and general responsibility for a group of performers at a festival.

cleruchy community of klerouchoi (sing. - os) , ‘allotment - holders’ , Athenian citizens who were given land outside Athens but remained Athenian citizens (cf. p. 56).

council in Athens and some other states boule (- ai) , but other states used other words: smaller body within a state which met more frequently than and prepared business for the assembly.

Delian League fifth - century alliance founded by Athens in 478/7, which turned increasingly into an empire.

deme local unit within Attica (one particular use of the word demos , below: cf. p. 5).

demos (-oi) ‘people’ , denoting either the whole citizen body of a state or the non - é lite majority among them.

dikasterion (-ia) lawcourt.

dike (-ai) lawsuit in general; in Athens, used of private suits as opposed to public (graphe).

eisangelia (-ai) ‘impeachment’ , a procedure in Athens for dealing with major offences, which could involve the council and assembly as well as the lawcourts (cf. p. 42).

eisphora (-ai) ‘paying in’ , in Athens the name of a tax levied on the property of the richer inhabitants (cf. pp. 99, 369).

(h)eliaia (better not aspirated) word used of lawcourts in Athens (cf. p. 42).

ephor title of the five principal annually elected officials in Sparta (cf. p. 4).

epidosis (-eis) ‘additional gift’ , voluntary contributions collected for a particular purpose by Athens and other states (cf. p. 369).

epistates (-tai) ‘overseer’ , title of various boards of officials in Athens.

gerousia council of elders (in Sparta, the body which prepared business for the assembly: cf. p. 4).

graphe (-ai) in Athens, public lawsuit as opposed to private (dike).

graphe paranomon ‘prosecution for illegality’ , in Athens, a lawsuit in which the defendant was accused of proposing an illegal (or, in practice, an inexpedient) decree.

harmost word used of non - regal Spartans commanding non – citizen forces (cf. p. 242).

hegemon (-mones) ‘leader’ , in particular, of a body of allies.

hellenotamias (-iai) ‘Greek Treasurer’ , title of the treasurers of the Delian League (cf. pp. 19 – 20).

helots servile class in Sparta, working the land of its Spartiate owners (cf. p. 4).

hetairos (-oi) ‘companion’ , used particularly of the nobles who fought as the cavalry in the Macedonian army, and also of the greater nobles who were more literally the king’ s companions (cf. pp. 401 – 2).

hieros lochos ‘sacred band’ , citizens employed as a professional core in the Theban army from the 370’ s to 338 (cf. p. 284).

hoplites heavy - armed infantry (cf. p. 3).

hypaspistes (-ai) ‘shield - bearer’ , é lite infantry body in the army of Alexander the Great (cf. p. 402).

liturgy ‘work for the people’ , in Athens, the obligation imposed on rich men to serve as choregos or trierarch at their own expense (cf. pp. 369 – 71).

mothax (-akes) a Spartan of inferior origin brought up with the Spartiates (cf. p. 144).

nomos (-oi) ‘law’ , contrasted with psephisma in fourth - century Athens; also ‘human convention’ , contrasted by the sophists with physis (cf. pp. 215 – 16, 296 – 8).

ostracism Athenian institution by which each year the citizens had an oppportunity to send one man into a kind of honourable exile for ten years; they voted by writing the name of their preferred victim on a potsherd (ostrakon [ - ka ]) (cf. pp. 5, 67).

Peloponnesian League alliance led by Sparta, from the end of the sixth century to 365 (cf. p. 4).

perioikos (-oi) ‘dweller - around’ , at Sparta and elsewhere members of communities which were not enslaved but were dependent on a principal city (cf. p. 4).

pezetairos (-oi) infantry in the Macedonian army, under Philip II perhaps an élite body, under Alexander the Great the main body (cf. p. 402).

phalanx a body of infantry fighting in close formation (cf. p. 3).

phoros (-oi) ‘tribute’ , the money collected annually by Athens from member states of the Delian League (cf. pp. 19 – 20).

physis ‘nature’ , contrasted by the sophists with nomos (cf. pp. 215 – 16, 297).

polis (-leis) ‘city state’ (cf. p. 2).

probouleuma ‘prior resolution’ , in Athens and elsewhere, a resolution of the council sent forward to the assembly (cf. p. 62).

proboulos (-oi) a board of ten men appointed in Athens in 413 to make preliminary proposals to the assembly (cf. p. 168).

proedros (-oi) ‘president’ , in Athens from not later than 379/8 the committee of council members which presided in the council and the assembly (cf. p. 299).

proxenos (-oi) a citizen of one state who acted as a representative of another state and its citizens in his own state.

prytanis (-neis) ‘chief’ , in Athens from at any rate 462/1 the fifty council members from one of the ten tribes who acted as standing committee of the council and until the early fourth century presided in the council and assembly (cf. pp. 43, 63).

psephisma (-mata) ‘decree’ of a council, assembly or other body, contrasted with nomos in fourth - century Athens (cf. pp. 296 – 8).

satrap governor of a province in the Persian empire.

Second Athenian League fourth - century alliance founded by Athens in 378/7.

sophist ‘wise man’ , word used of travelling teachers many of whom were active in Athens in the second half of the fifth century (cf. pp. 124, 215 – 16, 297).

Spartiate full citizen of Sparta (cf. pp. 4, 241).

stasis (-eis) dissension within a state.

stele (-ai) slab of stone on which texts were inscribed (cf. p. 8).

strategos (-oi) ‘general’ , commander of military forces by land and by sea; sometimes as in mid - fifth - century Athens a political leader also (cf. pp. 65 – 6).

synedrion ‘council’ , used in particular of the council of the Second Athenian League (cf. pp. 264 – 8) and of the League of Corinth (cf. pp. 357 – 8).

synoecism ‘living together’ , the political and/or physical amalgamation of small states to form a larger one (cf. pp. 25 – 6).

syntaxis (-xeis) ‘contribution’ , in particular, the money collected annually from the member states of the Second Athenian League (cf. p. 268).

tagos (- oi) Thessalian title resuscitated by Jason of Pherae (cf. p. 286).

tribe hereditary subdivision of the members of a state; in Athens and some other states a new articulation of the citizen body involved the citizens’ distribution among new tribes (cf. p. 5).

trierarch Athenian performing the liturgy (see above) of taking financial and general responsibility for a ship in the navy (cf. pp. 369 – 71).

trireme ship with three banks of oars and a total crew of about two hundred: the standard Greek warship from the early fifth century to the second half of the fourth (when quad-riremes and quinqueremes, probably with two banks of oars and more than one man to an oar, became prevalent: cf. pp. 318, 381 – 2).

trittys (-yes) a ‘third’ of a tribe in Athens (cf. p. 5).

tyrant a man who usurps power in a state (cf. p. 3).

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