Ancient History & Civilisation

image NOTES image

PREFACE

1. In this, I agree with Jennings 2011, who has written recently about globalizations and the ancient world. See also previously Sherratt 2003, in an article published a decade ago before the correlations became even more vivid, and now the MA thesis written under my direction by Katie Paul (2011).

2. Diamond 2005; see previously the volume by Tainter 1988 and the edited volume by Yoffee and Cowgill 1988; also discussions in Killebrew 2005: 33–34; Liverani 2009; Middleton 2010: 18–19, 24, 53; and now Middleton 2012; Butzer 2012; Butzer and Endfield 2012. On the rise and fall of empires, particularly from a world-systems viewpoint, which has engendered much discussion, see Frank 1993; Frank and Gillis 1993; Frank and Thompson 2005. In addition, a conference was recently held in Jerusalem (December 2012) entitled “Analyzing Collapse: Destruction, Abandonment and Memory” (http://www.collapse.huji.ac.il/the-schedule), but the proceedings have not yet been published.

3. Bell 2012: 180.

4. Bell 2012: 180–81.

5. Sherratt 2003: 53–54. See now also Singer 2012.

6. Braudel 2001: 114.

7. See Mallowan 1976; McCall 2001; Trumpler 2001.

PROLOGUE

1. Roberts 2008: 5 notes that Emmanuel de Rougé was the first to coin this term, “peuples de la mer,” in a publication dating to 1867; see also Dothan and Dothan 1992: 23–24; Roberts 2009; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 1.

2. See, for instance, the recent discussions in Killebrew 2005, Yasur-Landau 2010a, and Singer 2012.

3. Kitchen 1982: 238–39; cf. Monroe 2009: 33–34 and n. 28. Some Egyptologists put the eighth year of Ramses III slightly earlier (1186 BC) or slightly later (1175 BC), since the dates for the ancient Egyptian pharaohs and their years of rule are not completely certain but rather are approximate and are often adjusted according to the whims and desire of individual archaeologists and historians; here the years of Ramses’s rule are taken to be 1184–1153 BC.

4. Raban and Stieglitz 1991; Cifola 1994; Wachsmann 1998: 163–97; Barako 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Yasur-Landau 2003a; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 102–21, 171–86, 336–42; Demand 2011: 201–3.

5. Following Edgerton and Wilson 1936: pl. 46; revised trans., Wilson 1969: 262–63; see also Dothan, T. 1982: 5–13, with illustrations.

6. See now the compilation of all the Egyptian and other primary sources mentioning the various Sea Peoples, from the time of Amenhotep III in the Eighteenth Dynasty through the period of Ramses IX in the Twentieth Dynasty and beyond, by Adams and Cohen (2013) in Killebrew and Lehmann (eds.) 2013: 645–64 and tables 1–2.

7. Roberts 2008: 1–8; Sandars 1985: 117–37, 157–77; Vagnetti 2000; Cline and O’Connor 2003; Van De Mieroop 2007: 241–43; Halpern 2006–7; Middleton 2010: 83; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 8–11; Emanuel 2013: 14–27. See also additional references below regarding the pottery and other material culture remains.

8. See discussion in Cline and O’Connor 2003; also Sandars 1985: 50, 133 and now Emanuel 2013: 14–27. Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 7–8 note that the Lukka and Danuna are also mentioned in earlier Egyptian inscriptions, from the time of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten; see tables 1–2 and the appendix by Adams and Cohen 2013, as well as Artzy 2013: 329–32, in the volume edited by Killebrew and Lehmann.

9. See Amos 9:7 and Jer. 47:4, where Crete is referred to by one of its ancient names, Caphtor. See now Hitchcock in press.

10. Roberts 2008: 1–3; Dothan and Dothan 1992: 13–28. See also Finkelstein 2000: 159–61 and Finkelstein 2007: 517 for lucid descriptions of how the early biblical archaeologists such as Albright correlated the Peleset and the Philistines; Dothan, T. 1982, Killebrew 2005: 206–234, and Yasur-Landau 2010a: 2–3, 216–81 on the material remains usually identified as Philistine; and now the most recent, and complex, discussion and definition of the Philistines by Maeir, Hitchcock, and Horwitz 2013; Hitchcock and Maeir 2013; also the related discussions by Hitchcock 2011 and Stockhammer 2013.

11. See, e.g., Cifola 1991; Wachsmann 1998; Drews 2000; Yasur-Landau 2010b, 2012b; Bouzek 2011.

12. Breasted 1930: x–xi. See now the biography of Breasted by Abt (2011). As Abt notes on p. 230, Rockefeller secretly authorized an additional fifty thousand dollars, should Breasted need it, but did not inform him of that.

13. See, e.g., Raban and Stieglitz 1991.

14. Following Edgerton and Wilson 1936: pl. 46; revised trans., Wilson 1969: 262–63.

15. Following Breasted 1906 (reprinted 2001) 4:201; Sandars 1985: 133. See now Zwickel 2012.

16. See most recently Kahn 2012, with many further references.

17. Following Edel 1961; see Bakry 1973.

18. Breasted 1906 (2001) 3:253.

19. Following Breasted 1906 (2001) 3:241, 243, 249.

20. See discussion in Sandars 1985: 105–15; Cline and O’Connor 2003; Halpern 2006–7.

21. http://www.livescience.com/22267-severed-hands-ancient-egypt-palace.html and http://www.livescience.com/22266-grisly-ancient-practice-gold-of-valor.html (last accessed August 15, 2012).

22. Following Edgerton and Wilson 1936: pls. 37–39.

23. Ben Dor Evian 2011: 11–22.

24. RS 20.238 (Ugaritica 5.24); translation following Beckman 1996a: 27; original publication in Nougayrol et al. 1968: 87–89. See also Sandars 1985: 142–43; Yon 1992: 116, 119; Lebrun 1995: 86; Huehnergard 1999: 376–77; Singer 1999: 720–21; Bryce 2005: 333 (with incorrect RS tablet number). The precise interpretation of this letter is a matter of scholarly debate, for it is not clear whether it is actually a request for assistance or even what the main point of the letter might have been.

25. Schaeffer 1962: 31–37; also Nougayrol et al. 1968: 87–89; Sandars 1985: 142–43; Drews 1993: 13–14.

26. See, e.g., discussions in Sandars 1985; Drews 1993; Cifola 1994; and the papers in conference volumes edited by Ward and Joukowsky (1992) and by Oren (1997). But see already a protest to the contrary in Raban and Stieglitz 1991 and now the papers in Killebrew and Lehmann 2013.

27. See, e.g., Monroe 2009; Yasur-Landau 2010a; and the papers in the conference volumes edited by Bachhuber and Roberts (2009), Galil et al. (2012), and Killebrew and Lehmann (2013); also the brief summation of the situation in Hitchcock and Maeir 2013 and the synopsis in Strobel 2013.

28. Bryce 2012: 13.

29. Roberts 2008: 1–19. See also discussion in Roberts 2009; Drews 1992: 21–24; Drews 1993: 48–72; Silberman 1998; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 1–2.

CHAPTER ONE

1. Cline 1995b, with references; see, most recently, Cline, Yasur-Landau, and Goshen 2011, also with references.

2. See, e.g., Bietak 1996, 2005; now also Bietak, Marinatos, and Palyvou 2007.

3. See, most recently, Kamrin 2013.

4. Oren 1997.

5. Wente 2003a: 69–71.

6. Translation following Pritchard 1969: 554–55; Habachi 1972: 37, 49; Redford, D. B. 1992: 120; Redford, D. B. 1997: 14.

7. E.g., Bietak 1996: 80.

8. Heimpel 2003: 3–4.

9. Dalley 1984: 89–93, esp. 91–92.

10. For such requests, at Mari and elsewhere, see Cline 1995a: 150; previously Zaccagnini 1983: 250–54; Liverani 1990: 227–29. For contacts specifically between the Minoans and Mesopotamia, see Heltzer 1989 and now also Sørensen 2009; previously also Cline 1994: 24–30 on the larger question of contacts between the Aegean and Mesopotamia.

11. See items listed in Cline 1994: 126–28 (D.3–12).

12. Translation following Durard 1983: 454–55; see also Cline 1994: 127 (D.7).

13. See discussions in Cline 1994, 1995a, 1999a, 2007a, and 2010, with further references.

14. See Cline 1994: 126 (D.2), with previous references; also Heltzer 1989.

15. Evans 1921–35.

16. Momigliano 2009.

17. Numerous books have been published on the Minoans and/or various aspects of their society; see, for example, Castleden 1993 and Fitton 2002; also most recently, the specific articles found in Cline (ed.) 2010.

18. On the Khyan lid, see Cline 1994: 210 (no. 680) with additional references.

19. On the Thutmose III vase, see Cline 1994: 217 (no. 742) with additional references.

20. Cline 1999a: 129–30, with earlier references.

21. Pendlebury 1930. On Pendlebury himself, see now Grundon 2007. Pendlebury’s original book has now been replaced by a recent study in two volumes; see Phillips 2008.

22. As previously noted in Cline and Cline 1991.

23. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 379, 392–93.

24. Translation following Strange 1980: 45–46. See also Wachsmann 1987: 35–37, 94; Cline 1994: 109–10 (A.12) with additional information and references; Rehak 1998; Panagiotopoulos 2006: 382–83.

25. Troy 2006: 146–50.

26. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 379–80.

27. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 380–87.

28. Translation following Strange 1980: 97–98. See also Wachsmann 1987: 120–21; Cline 1994: 110 (A.13).

29. Strange 1980: 74; Wachsmann 1987: 119–21; Cline 1994: 110 (A.14).

30. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 380–83.

31. I first pointed this out in a conference paper presented at the annual meetings of the Archaeological Institute of America; see Cline 1995a: 146. See also Cline 1994: 110–11 (A.16); Panagiotopoulos 2006: 381–82.

32. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 372–73, 394; but see protestations by Liverani 2001: 176–82. See previously Cline 1995a: 146–47; Cline 1994: 110 (A.15).

33. Clayton 1994: 101–2; Allen 2005: 261; Dorman 2005a: 87–88; Keller 2005: 96–98.

34. Tyldesley 1998: 1; Dorman 2005a: 88. See also http://www.drhawass.com/blog/press-release-identifying-hatshepsuts-mummy (last accessed December 29, 2010).

35. Clayton 1994: 105; Dorman 2005b: 107–9.

36. Tyldesley 1998: 144.

37. Clayton 1994: 106–7; Tyldesley 1998: 145–53; Liverani 2001: 166–69; Keller 2005: 96–98; Roth 2005: 149; Panagiotopoulos 2006: 379–80.

38. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 373.

39. Translation following Strange 1980: 16–20, no. 1; see Cline 1997a: 193.

40. Cline 1997a: 194–96, with previous references.

41. Ryan 2010: 277, see also 5–28, 260–81 for general discussions of Ryan’s reexcavation of tomb KV 60. See also news reports, such as http://www.guardians.net/hawass/hatshepsut/search_for_hatshepsut.htm and http://www.drhawass.com/blog/press-release-identifying-hatshepsuts-mummy (both last accessed December 29, 2010).

42. On Thutmose III’s campaign and capture of Megiddo, see Cline 2000: chap. 1, with further references; also, for a very brief account, Allen 2005: 261–62.

43. Cline 2000: 28.

44. Darnell and Manassa 2007: 139–42; Podany 2010: 131–34.

45. Podany 2010: 134.

46. The classic and authoritative translation was published in German by Kammenhuber in 1961. For a modern example of a horse-trainer attempting to use Kikkuli’s methods, see now Nyland 2009.

47. Redford, D. B. 2006: 333–34; Darnell and Manassa 2007: 141; Amanda Podany, personal communication, May 23, 2013.

48. Bryce 2005: 140.

49. I have suggested this previously in Cline 1997a: 196. Further, for my previous discussions of this material concerning the Assuwa Rebellion and Ahhiyawa, including similar details and wording in the following paragraphs and further below, see Cline 2013: 54–68; also Cline 1996, with previous references, and Cline 1997a. See also Bryce 2005: 124–27, with previous references, and the relevant sections in Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011.

50. Translation and transliteration following Unal, Ertekin, and Ediz 1991: 51; Ertekin and Ediz 1993: 721; Cline 1996: 137–38; Cline 1997a: 189–90.

51. On the Hittites, and the material presented in the following paragraphs, see especially the overviews by Bryce 2002, 2005, 2012; Collins 2007.

52. See now the discussion on Hittites and the Bible in Bryce 2012: 64–75.

53. See now Bryce 2012: 47–49 and passim on the Neo-Hittites and their world.

54. See now Bryce 2012: 13–14; previously Bryce 2005.

55. Hittite Law no. 13; translation following Hoffner 2007: 219.

56. As mentioned above, for my previous discussions of this material, including the details in the following paragraphs and further below, see now Cline 2013: 54–68; also Cline 1996, with previous references, Cline 1997a, and the relevant sections in Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011.

57. Full transliteration and translation in Carruba 1977: 158–61; see also Cline 1996: 141 for additional discussion and relevant references.

58. Translation following Houwink ten Cate 1970: 62 (cf. also 72 n. 99, 81); see also Cline 1996: 143 for additional relevant references.

59. See Cline 1996: 145–46; Cline 1997a: 192.

60. See references given in Cline 2010: 177–79.

61. See references given in Cline 1994, 1996, and 1997a for the arguments regarding the proper location of Ahhiyawa; see now also Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011, as well as alternative perspectives presented in Kelder 2010 and Kelder 2012.

62. For a brief introduction to Schliemann, with additional bibliography given, see now Rubalcaba and Cline 2011.

63. See Schliemann 1878; Tsountas and Manatt 1897.

64. Blegen and Rawson 1966: 5–6; previously, Blegen and Kourouniotis 1939: 563–64.

65. On the most current thinking regarding the Mycenaeans, see, most recently, the articles found in Cline (ed.) 2010.

66. On the Mycenaean goods found in Egypt and elsewhere in the Near East, see Cline 1994 (republished 2009), with further bibliographical references.

67. Cline 1996: 149; see now Cline 2013: 54–68.

68. See Cline 1997a: 197–98 and Cline 2013: 43–49, with further references.

69. Translation following Fagles 1990: 185.

70. As previously stated in Cline 1997a: 202–3.

71. Kantor 1947: 73.

72. Panagiotopoulos 2006: 406 n. 1 says, “There is no reason to believe that Hatshepsut was a pacifist, since there is reliable evidence for at least four, and perhaps even six, military campaigns during her reign, at least one of which she led in person.” See previously Redford, D. B. 1967: 57–62.

CHAPTER TWO

1. Cline 1998: 236–37; Sourouzian 2004. See Cambridge classicist Mary Beard’s rumination on these statues, found online at http://timesonline.typepad.com/dons_life/2011/01/the-colossi-of-memnon.html (last accessed January 16, 2011).

2. Work on the Aegean List began in 2000; the whole base was finally reassembled in the spring of 2005, reconstructed from eight hundred separate fragments. See discussion in Sourouzian et al. 2006: 405–6, 433–35, pls. XXIIa, c.

3. Kitchen 1965: 5–6; see also Kitchen 1966.

4. For the primary publication of these lists, see Edel 1966; Edel and Görg 2005. For other scholars’ thoughts, commentaries, and hypotheses, see, e.g., Hankey 1981; Cline 1987 and 1998, with citations of earlier publications.

5. Cline and Stannish 2011.

6. Cline 1987, 1990, 1994, and 1998; Phillips and Cline 2005.

7. Cline 1987: 10; see also Cline 1990.

8. Cline 1994: xvii–xviii, 9–11, 35, 106; Cline 1999a.

9. Cline 1998: 248; see also previously Cline 1987 and now also Cline and Stannish 2011: 11.

10. Mynářová 2007: 11–39.

11. See Amarna Letters EA 41–44; Moran 1992: 114–17.

12. See Cohen and Westbrook 2000.

13. See Moran 1992 for an English translation of all the letters.

14. Amarna Letter EA 17; translation following Moran 1992: 41–42.

15. Amarna Letter EA 14; Moran 1992: 27–37.

16. For instance, Amarna Letters EA 22, 24, and 25; Moran 1992: 51–61, 63–84.

17. Liverani 1990; Liverani 2001: 135–37. See now also Mynářová 2007: 125–31, specifically on the Amarna Letters.

18. On such anthropological studies, see the discussion in Cline 1995a: 143, with further references and bibliography noted there in fn. 1.

19. Ugarit Letter RS 17.166, cited in Cline 1995a: 144, following translation by Liverani 1990: 200.

20. Hittite Letter KUB XXIII 102: I 10–19, cited in Cline 1995a: 144, following translation by Liverani 1990: 200.

21. See again Cline 1995a, for previous and more full discussion of this topic.

22. Amarna Letter EA 24; translation following Moran 1992: 63. See now discussion on the relations between Tushratta and Amenhotep III in Kahn 2011.

23. See Amarna Letter EA 20, sent to Amenhotep III, Moran 1992: 47–50, and then Amarna Letters EA 27–29, subsequently sent to Akhenaten, Moran 1992: 86–99.

24. Amarna Letter EA 22, lines 43–49; translation following Moran 1992: 51–61, esp. 57. Such royal marriages were not uncommon in the ancient Near East; see Liverani 1990.

25. Cline 1998: 248.

26. Amarna Letter EA 4; translation following Moran 1992: 8–10.

27. Amarna Letter EA 1; translation following Moran 1992: 1–5.

28. Amarna Letters EA 2–3, 5; Moran 1992: 6–8, 10–11.

29. E.g., Amarna Letters EA 19; translation following Moran 1992: 4.

30. Amarna Letter EA 3; translation following Moran 1992: 7.

31. Amarna Letters EA 7 and 10; translations following Moran 1992: 12–16, 19–20. See also Podany 2010: 249–52.

32. Amarna Letter EA 7; translation following Moran 1992: 14.

33. Amarna Letter EA 7; Moran 1992: 14. See also Amarna Letter 8, in which Burna-Buriash complains to Akhenaten about yet another attack on his merchants, during which they were killed; Moran 1992: 16–17.

34. Malinowski 1922; see also Uberoi 1962; Leach and Leach 1983; Mauss 1990: 27–29; and previous discussion in Cline 1995a.

35. This has been pointed out previously elsewhere, in Cline 1995a: 149–50, with further references and bibliography cited there.

36. Again, this has been pointed out previously, in Cline 1995a: 150. The further references and bibliography cited there include Zaccagnini 1983: 250–54; Liverani 1990: 227–29; Niemeier 1991; Bietak 1992: 26–28. See now also Niemeier and Niemeier 1998; Pfälzner 2008a, 2008b; Hitchcock 2005, 2008; Cline and Yasur-Landau 2013.

37. Amarna Letters EA 33–40. The equation of Cyprus with Alashiya has a long, and convoluted, scholarly history. For an irreverent brief discussion of the equation, see now Cline 2005.

38. Amarna Letter EA 35; Moran 1992: 107–9. The word “talents” is reconstructed, but seems most logical here.

39. See brief note by Moran 1992: 39.

40. Amarna Letter EA 15; translation following Moran 1992: 37–38.

41. Amarna Letter EA 16; translation following Moran 1992: 38–41.

42. Van De Mieroop 2007: 131, 138, 175; Bryce 2012: 182–83.

43. The bust is listed among Time magazine’s Top 10 Plundered Artifacts: see http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1883142_1883129_1883119,00.html (last accessed January 18, 2011). See also the New York Times article: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/19/world/europe/19iht-germany.html?_r=2 (last accessed January 18, 2011).

44. See the lyrics to the song, sung by comedian Steve Martin on Saturday Night Live during the days of Tutmania in the United States in the late 1970s. Numerous copies of the clip can now be found on the Internet, including at http://www.hulu.com/watch/55342 and http://www.nbc.com/saturday-night-live/digital-shorts/video/king-tut/1037261/ (both last accessed on May 23, 2013).

45. Hawass 2005: 263–72.

46. Hawass 2010; Hawass et al. 2010.

47. Reeves 1990: 44.

48. Reeves 1990: 40–46.

49. Reeves 1990: 48–51.

50. Reeves 1990: 10.

51. See photographs in Reeves 1990: 52–53.

52. Bryce 2005: 148–59; Podany 2010: 267–71.

53. Cline 1998: 248–49. On Amenhotep III’s dynastic marriages, see also Schulman 1979: 183–85, 189–90; Schulman 1988: 59–60; Moran 1992: 101–3.

54. Translation following Singer 2002: 62; cited and discussed by Bryce 2005: 154–55 (see also 188).

55. See Yener 2013a, with previous references.

56. See Bryce 2005: 155–59, 161–63, 175–80; Bryce 2012: 14.

57. Richter 2005; Merola 2007; Pfälzner 2008a, 2008b. See now Richter and Lange 2012 for the full publication of the archive and Ahrens, Dohmann-Pfälzner, and Pfälzner 2012 for the clay sealing of Akhenaten, and Morandi Bonacossi 2013 on the final crisis ca. 1340 BC.

58. See discussion in Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 158–61.

59. Translation following Bryce 2005: 178. The following is heavily indebted to the account found in Bryce 2005: 178–83. See also, though, Cline 2006, in an account written for children.

60. Translation following Bryce 2005: 180–81; the letter is KBo xxviii 51.

61. Translation following Bryce 2005: 181.

62. Translation following Bryce 2005: 182.

63. For examples of scholarly differences of opinion, Bryce 2005: 179 says that the widowed queen was Ankhsenamen, but Reeves 1990: 23 says that the queen was Nefertiti. See also Podany 2010: 285–89, who believes that it was Ankhsenamen.

64. See Bryce 2005: 183 and n. 130, with references.

65. See discussions in Cline 1991a: 133–43; Cline 1991b: 1–9; Cline 1994: 68–74.

66. Cline 1998: 249.

67. See Bryce 1989a: 1–21; Bryce 1989b: 297–310.

CHAPTER THREE

1. Sources for this and the details and discussion that follow below are many and varied, but see especially Bass 1986, 1987, 1997, 1998; Pulak 1988, 1998, 1999, 2005; Bachhuber 2006; Cline and Yasur-Landau 2007. See now also Podany 2010: 256–58.

2. Bass 1967; Bass 1973.

3. Pulak 1998: 188.

4. Pulak 1998: 213.

5. In addition to the articles by Pulak, Bass, and Bachhuber, see the list in Monroe 2009: 11–12, with additional discussion on 13–15, 234–38; also Monroe 2010. Information now updated slightly courtesy of lecture by Cemal Pulak, delivered at an academic conference in Freiburg, Germany, in May 2012.

6. Weinstein 1989.

7. See, most recently, Manning et al. 2009.

8. Payton 1991.

9. RS 16.238+254; translation following Heltzer 1988: 12. See also, among many discussions, Caubet and Matoian 1995: 100; Monroe 2009: 165–66.

10. RS 16.386; translation following Monroe 2009: 164–65.

11. Singer 1999: 634–35. For some of the correspondence exchanged between the kings at this time, see Nougayrol 1956.

12. Bryce 2005: 234.

13. Bryce 2005: 277.

14. Bryce 2005: 236, with earlier references.

15. Bryce 2005: 236–37.

16. Translation following Bryce 2005: 237–38, following Gardiner.

17. Bryce 2005: 235.

18. Bryce 2005: 238–39.

19. Bryce 2005: 277–78.

20. Translation following Bryce 2005: 277, following Kitchen.

21. Bryce 2005: 277, 282, 284–85.

22. Translation following Bryce 2005: 283, following Kitchen.

23. A lengthier version of the discussion in this section on Troy and the Trojan War, as well as in the next chapter, can be found in Cline 2013, which was written at the same time as this book and contains some of the same material and language, albeit in different order and with a more detailed discussion in places. In both cases, the discussions represent an edited version of material first published, with additional references, by the present author in the Course Guide accompanying the fourteen-lecture recorded audio series entitled Archaeology and the Iliad: The Trojan War in Homer and History (Recorded Books/The Modern Scholar, 2006) and is reproduced here by permission of the publisher.

24. See discussion in Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 140–44.

25. Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 101–22.

26. Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 101–22.

27. Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 101–22.

28. Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 101–22.

29. See now the discussion, with further references, in Cline 2013. See also, in general, Strauss 2006.

30. See, e.g., Wood 1996; Allen 1999; now Cline 2013.

31. Mountjoy 1999a: 254–56, 258; see also Mountjoy 1999b: 298–99; Mountjoy 2006: 244–45; Cline 2013: 90.

32. See now discussion in Cline 2013: 87–90.

33. See, e.g., Loader 1998; also Shelmerdine 1998b: 87; Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 388; Maran 2009: 248–50; Kostoula and Maran 2012: 217, citing Maran 2004.

34. Hirschfeld 1990, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2010; Cline 1994: 54, 61; Cline 1999b; Cline 2007a: 195; Maran 2004; Maran 2009: 246–47.

35. Cline 1994: 50, 128–30. See now also recent mentions in Monroe 2009: 196–97, 226–27.

36. Cline 1994: 60, 130 (Cat. nos. E13–14); Palaima 1991: 280–81, 291–95; Shelmerdine 1998b.

37. Cline 1994: 60, 130; see also Palaima 1991: 280–81, 291–95; Knapp 1991. See now Yasur-Landau 2010a: 40, table 2.1, conveniently itemizing in a single table these and the following names, which are then placed on a map in his fig. 2.3.

38. Cline 1994: 50, 68–69, 128–31 (Cat. nos. E3, E7, E15–18); see most recently Latacz 2004: 280–81, who cites Niemeier 1999: 154 for additional occurrences of mentions in the Pylos tablets of women from Lemnos and Chios, as well as perhaps Troy or the Troad.

39. Cline 1994: 50, 129 (Cat. nos. E8–11); previously Astour 1964: 194, 1967: 336–44; now also Bell 2009: 32.

40. Cline 1994: 35, 128 (Cat. nos. E1–2); Shelmerdine 1998a.

41. Zivie 1987.

42. The discussion below of the Exodus is an edited version of material first published, with additional references, by the present author in Cline 2007b and is reproduced here by permission of the publisher.

43. Diodorus Siculus 1.47; translated by Oldfather 1961.

44. See discussion in Cline 2007b: 61–92, with further references; also Miller and Hayes 2006: 39–41; Bryce 2012: 187–88.

45. Translation following Pritchard 1969: 378.

46. See discussion in Cline 2007b: 83–85, with further references; also Hoffmeier 2005, as well as Ben-Tor and Rubiato 1999.

47. See discussion in Cline 2007b: 85–87, with further references.

48. Such claims are mostly, but easily, found on the Internet; see, e.g., http://www.discoverynews.us/DISCOVERY%20MUSEUM/BibleLandsDisplay/Red_Sea_Chariot_Wheels/Red_Sea_Chariot_Wheels_1.html (last accessed May 27, 2013).

49. On the dating of the eruption, which has generated much scholarly debate over the past several decades, see Manning 1999, 2010, with further references.

50. Cline 2007b, 2009a, 2009b, with references.

51. Zuckerman 2007a: 17, citing and quoting from earlier publications by Garstang, Yadin, and Ben-Tor. See now also Ben-Tor 2013.

52. Zuckerman 2007a: 24.

53. Ben-Tor and Zuckerman 2008: 3–4, 6.

54. Ben-Tor 1998, 2006, 2013; Ben-Tor and Rubiato 1999; Zuckerman 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2009, 2010; Ben-Tor and Zuckerman 2008; see now Ashkenazi 2012; Zeiger 2012; Marom and Zuckerman 2012.

55. See discussions, with further references, in Cline 2007b: 86–92; Cline 2009a: 76–78; and see also Cline 2009b.

56. Bryce 2009: 85.

57. Kuhrt 1995: 353–54; Bryce 2012: 182–83.

58. Bryce 2005: 314.

59. Porada 1992: 182–83; Kuhrt 1995: 355–58; Singer 1999: 688–90; Potts 1999: 231; Bryce 2005: 314–19; Bryce 2009: 86; Bryce 2012: 182–85. Note that Singer places the beginning of Tukulti-Ninurta’s reign at 1233 BC, rather than 1244 BC.

60. On the battle against the Hittites, at Nihriya in northern Mesopotamia, see Bryce 2012: 54, 183–84, among others. On the possible gift sent to Boeotian Thebes, see initial discussion in Porada 1981, briefly discussed in Cline 1994: 25–26.

61. Translation following Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 61; previously Bryce 2005: 315–19.

62. Translation following Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 63.

63. I have discussed this in a number of my previous publications; see most recently Cline 2007a: 197, with further references.

64. Translation following Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 61; previously Bryce 2005: 309–10.

65. See discussion in Beckman, Bryce, and Cline 2011: 101–22; previously Bryce 1985, 2005: 306–8.

66. Bryce 2005: 321–22; Demand 2011: 195. See now also Kaniewski et al. 2013 on a possible drought in Cyprus itself at this time, on which more below.

67. Translation following Bryce 2005: 321, after Güterbock, as well as discussion on 321–22 and 333; see also similar translation by Beckman 1996b: 32 and the discussion by Hoffner 1992: 48–49.

68. Translation following Beckman 1996b: 33; see also Bryce 2005: 332; Singer 2000: 27; Singer 1999: 719, 721–22; Hoffner 1992: 48–49; Sandars 1985: 141–42.

69. Bryce 2005: 323, 327–33; Singer 2000: 25–27; Hoffner 1992: 48–49.

70. Singer 2000: 27.

71. Phelps, Lolos, and Vichos 1999; Lolos 2003.

72. Bass 1967; Bass 1973.

73. Bass 1988; Bass 2013.

74. Cline 1994: 100–101.

CHAPTER FOUR

1. Yon 2006: 7. The scholarly literature on these sites is immense, but Yon 2006 is fairly brief and very accessible, as is previously Curtis 1999. On the political and economic history of Ugarit, see also the good overview and summation in Singer 1999. See also Podany 2010: 273–75.

2. Caubet 2000; Yon 2003, 2006: 7–8.

3. See Yon 2006: 142–43, for a picture of these Canaanite jars in situ, with brief discussion and further references.

4. Dietrich and Loretz 1999; Yon 2006: 7–8, 44, with further references.

5. Yon 2006: 7–8, 19, 24; Lackenbacher 1995a: 72; Singer 1999: 623–27, 641–42, 680–81, 701–4. The Amarna Letters sent by the kings of Ugarit are EA 45 and 49, and others may include EA 46–48; see Moran 1992.

6. Van Soldt 1991; Lackenbacher 1995a: 69–70; Millard 1995: 121; Huehnergard 1999: 375; Singer 1999: 704. See now, more recently, Singer 2006: esp. 256–58; Bell 2006: 17; McGeough 2007: 325–32.

7. Singer 1999: 657–60, 668–73; Pitard 1999: 48–51; Bell 2006: 2, 17; McGeough 2007; Bell 2012: 180.

8. Yon 2006: 20–21, with specific objects illustrated and discussed on 129–72, including 168–69 for the sword; Singer 1999: 625, 676; McGeough 2007: 297–305.

9. Documented on tablet RS 17.382 + RS 17.380; see Singer 1999: 635; McGeough 2007: 325.

10. Lackenbacher 1995a; Bordreuil and Malbran-Labat 1995; Malbran-Labat 1995. Previous discussions about the end of Ugarit include those by Astour 1965 and Sandars 1985.

11. Yon 2006: 51, 54; McGeough 2007: 183–84, 254–55, 333–35; Bell 2012: 182–83. On Cypro-Minoan, see Hirschfeld 2010, with references.

12. Yon 2006: 73–77, with references; van Soldt 1999: 33–34; Bell 2006: 65; Mc-Geough 2007: 247–49; Bell 2012: 182.

13. Ugaritic text RS 20.168; see Singer 1999: 719–20; original publication in Nougayrol et al. 1968: 80–83.

14. Malbran-Labat 1995; Bordreuil and Malbran-Labat 1995; Singer 1999: 605; van Soldt 1999: 35–36; Yon 2006: 22, 87–88; Bell 2006: 67; McGeough 2007: 257–59; Bell 2012: 183–84. See now also Bordreuil, Pardee, and Hawley 2012.

15. RS 34.165. Lackenbacher in Bordreuil 1991: 90–100; Hoffner 1992: 48; Singer 1999: 689–90.

16. Singer 1999: 658–59; see now also Cohen and Singer 2006; McGeough 2007: 184, 335.

17. Singer 1999: 719–20, summarizing previous reports; Bordreuil and Malbran-Labat 1995: 445.

18. Lackenbacher and Malbran-Labat 2005: 237–38 and nn. 69, 76; Singer 2006: 256–58; Cline and Yasur-Landau 2007: 130; Bryce 2010; Bell 2012: 184. The letter from the Hittite king (probably Suppiluliuma II) is RS 94.2530; that from the top Hittite official is RS 94.2523.

19. RS 88.2158. Lackenbacher 1995b: 77–83; Lackenbacher in Yon and Arnaud 2001: 239–47; see discussion in Singer 1999: 708–712; Singer 2000: 22.

20. RS 34.153; Bordreuil 1991: 75–76; translation following Monroe 2009: 188–89.

21. RS 17.450A; see discussion in Monroe 2009: 180, 188–89.

22. Malbran-Labat 1995: 107.

23. Millard 1995: 121.

24. Singer 1999: 729–30 and n. 427; Caubet 1992: 123; Yon 2006: 22; Kaniewski et al. 2011: 4–5.

25. Yon 1992: 111, 117, 120; Singer 1999: 730; Bell 2006: 12, 101–2.

26. Ugarit text RS 86.2230. See Yon 1992: 119; Hoffner 1992: 49; Drews 1993: 13; Singer 1999: 713–15; Arnaud in Yon and Arnaud 2001: 278–79 Yasur-Landau 2003d: 236; Bell 2006: 12; Yon 2006: 127; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 187; Kaniewski et al. 2010: 212; Kaniewski et al. 2011: 5.

27. KTU 1.78 (RS 12.061); see now Kaniewski et al. 2010: 212 and Kaniewski et al. 2011: 5, citing Dietrich and Loretz 2002. Contra Demand 2011: 199, citing an earlier publication by Lipinski, the destruction is unlikely to have been as late as 1160 BC.

28. See, e.g., Sandars 1985.

29. See Millard 1995: 119 and Singer 1999: 705, with earlier references; also van Soldt 1999: 32; Yon 2006: 44; Van De Mieroop 2007: 245; McGeough 2007: 236–37; McGeough 2011: 225.

30. Yon 1992: 117; Caubet 1992: 129; McClellan 1992: 165–67; Drews 1993: 15, 17; Singer 2000: 25.

31. Courbin 1990, quoted in Caubet 1992: 127; see also Lagarce and Lagarce 1978.

32. Bounni, Lagarce, and Saliby 1976; Bounni, Lagarce, and Saliby 1978, cited by Caubet 1992: 124; see also Drews 1993: 14; Singer 2000: 24; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 165–66; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 12.

33. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 1 and see fig. 2. For earlier discussions of the discoveries made at this site, see Maqdissi et al. 2008; Bretschneider and Van Lerberghe 2008, 2011; Vansteenhuyse 2010; Bretschneider, Van Vyve, and Jans 2011.

34. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 1–2.

35. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 1.

36. See Badre 2003 and the discussion following; also Badre et al. 2005; Badre 2006, 2011; Jung 2009; Jung 2010: 177–78.

37. Jung 2012: 115–16.

38. Drews 1993: 7 n. 11, 15–16; cf. previously Franken 1961; Dothan, T. 1983: 101, 104; Dever 1992: 104. See now also Gilmour and Kitchen 2012.

39. See brief discussion by Weinstein 1992: 143, with earlier references.

40. See brief overview and discussion in Dever 1992: 101–2.

41. Loud 1948: 29 and figs 70–71; cf. also Kempinski 1989: 10, 76–77, 160; Finkelstein 1996: 171–72; Nur and Ron 1997: 537–39; Nur and Cline 2000: 59.

42. Ussishkin 1995; also personal communication, May 2013.

43. Weinstein 1992: 144–45; Ussishkin 1995: 214; Finkelstein 1996: 171; cf. Loud 1939: pl. 62 no. 377.

44. See most recently Feldman 2002, 2006, and 2009; Steel 2013: 162–69. Previously, Loud 1939; Kantor 1947.

45. Weinstein 1992: 144–45; Ussishkin 1995: 214; Finkelstein 1996: 171; see now also Yasur-Landau 2003d: 237–38; Zwickel 2012: 599–600.

46. Information from Israel Finkelstein, Eran Arie, and Michael Toffolo; I am indebted to them for permission to mention their ongoing studies, which are unpublished at the moment.

47. Ussishkin 1995: 215.

48. Ussishkin 2004b: tables 2.1 and 3.3.

49. Ussishkin 2004b: 60–69.

50. Ussishkin 2004b: 60–62.

51. Ussishkin 2004b: 62, 65–68.

52. Ussishkin 2004b: 71; Barkay and Ussishkin 2004: 357.

53. Zuckerman 2007a: 10, citing Barkay and Ussishkin 2004: 353, 358–61 and Smith 2004: 2504–7.

54. Barkay and Ussishkin 2004: 361; Zuckerman 2007a: 10.

55. Ussishkin 2004b: 70; also Ussishkin 1987.

56. Ussishkin 2004b: 69–70, with references to the earlier publications.

57. Ussishkin 1987; Ussishkin 2004b: 64 and color plates on p. 136; see also Weinstein 1992: 143–44; Giveon, Sweeney, and Lalkin. 2004: 1626–28; Ussishkin 2004d, with plates. See now also Zwickel 2012: 597–98.

58. Ussishkin 1987.

59. Carmi and Ussishkin 2004: 2508–13, with table 35.1; Barkay and Ussishkin 2004: 361; Ussishkin 2004b: 70; Giveon, Sweeney, and Lalkin 2004: 1627–28, with earlier references. Ussishkin, personal communication, May 14, 2013, writes: “As to dating the destruction of Lachish VI to 1130—I suggested it not on the basis of C14 dates but on the basis of the assumption that the Egyptians must have held Lachish as long as they held Megiddo and Beth Shan located further north, and based on the statue of Rameses VI in Megiddo these cities must have existed till about 1130. I still hold to this view.”

60. Zwickel 2012: 598, with previous references.

61. Ussishkin 2004b: 70.

62. Ussishkin 2004b: 70.

63. Ussishkin 2004b: 69–72, with references to the earlier publications.

64. Ussishkin 1987; Ussishkin 2004b: 71–72; Zuckerman 2007a: 10. See now also Zwickel 2012: 597–98.

65. Ussishkin 2004b: 71 and color plates on p. 127; see also Barkay and Ussishkin 2004: 358, 363; Smith 2004: 2504–7.

66. See previously Nur and Ron 1997; Nur and Cline 2000, 2001; Nur and Burgess 2008; Cline 2011.

67. Ussishkin 2004c: 216, 267, 270–71.

68. Weinstein 1992: 147.

69. Master, Stager, and Yasur-Landau 2011: 276; see previously Dothan, M. 1971: 25; Dothan, T. 1982: 36–37; Dever 1992: 102–3; Dothan and Dothan 1992: 160–61; Dothan, M. 1993: 96; Dothan and Porath 1993: 47; Dothan, T. 1990, 2000; Stager 1995; Killebrew 1998: 381–82; Killebrew 2000; Gitin 2005; Barako 2013: 41. See also now brief discussion in Demand 2011: 208–10 and the detailed debate and discussion, with full references, as to what constitutes Philistine culture and how the Philistines might have interacted with the local Canaanite population in Killebrew 2005: 197–245; Killebrew 2006–7; Killebrew 2013; Yasur-Landau 2010a: esp. 216–334; Faust and Lev-Tov 2011; Yasur-Landau 2012a; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 16; Sherratt 2013; and Maeir, Hitchcock, and Horwitz 2013.

70. Dothan, T. 2000: 147; see also the very similar statement in Dothan, T. 1998: 151. See also Yasur-Landau 2010a: 223–24.

71. Master, Stager, and Yasur-Landau 2011: 261, 274–76, and passim; see also previously Dothan, T. 1982: 36.

72. Stager 1995: 348, cited specifically by Yasur-Landau 2012a: 192. See also Middleton 2010: 85, 87.

73. Potts 1999: 206, 233, and tables 7.5–7.6. See also discussion in Zettler 1992: 174–76.

74. Translation following Potts 1999: 233 and table 7.6.

75. Potts 1999: 188, 233, and table 7.9; Bryce 2012: 185–87.

76. Yener 2013a; Yener 2013b: 144.

77. Drews 1993: 9.

78. See comments on precisely this matter by Güterbock 1992: 55, with references to earlier publications by Kurt Bittel, Heinrich Otten, and others. See now also the discussion by Bryce 2012: 14–15.

79. Neve 1989: 9; Hoffner 1992: 48; Güterbock 1992: 53; Bryce 2005: 269–71, 319–21; Genz 2013: 469–72.

80. Hoffner 1992: 49, 51.

81. Hoffner 1992: 46–47, with references to earlier publications by Kurt Bittel, Heinrich Otten, and others; also now Singer 2001; Middleton 2010: 56.

82. Muhly 1984: 40–41.

83. Bryce 2012: 12; Genz 2013: 472.

84. Seeher 2001; Bryce 2005: 345–46; Van De Mieroop 2007: 240–41; Demand 2011: 195; Bryce 2012: 11; Genz 2013: 469–72.

85. Drews 1993: 9, 11, with references; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 159–61, 186–87, with references. On Tarsus, see now Yalçin 2013.

86. Drews 1993: 9, with references.

87. Bryce 2005: 347–48. Others had noticed this before Bryce; see, for example, Güterbock 1992: 53, citing Bittel; see now also Genz 2013.

88. As with the section in the previous chapter on Troy and the Trojan War, this brief discussion of Troy VIIa and its destruction repeats material that was presented in Cline 2013, which was written at the same time as this book. Again, the discussion represents an edited version of material first published, with additional references, by the present author in the Course Guide accompanying the fourteen-lecture recorded audio series entitled Archaeology and the Iliad: The Trojan War in Homer and History (Recorded Books/The Modern Scholar, 2006) and is reproduced here by permission of the publisher.

89. Mountjoy 1999b: 300–301 and table 1 on p. 298; Mountjoy 2006: 245–48; see now Cline 2013: 91.

90. Mountjoy 1999b: 296–97; see now Cline 2013: 93–94.

91. See, e.g., Blegen et al. 1958: 11–12.

92. Transcript of the BBC documentary The Truth of Troy, http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2004/troytrans.shtml (last accessed April 17, 2012); see now also discussion in Cline 2013: 94–101.

93. See Mountjoy 1999b: 333–34 and now Cline 2013: 94.

94. See, e.g., Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 387, 390 and the list of sites in Shelmerdine 2001: 373 n. 275.

95. Middleton 2010: 14–15. See now further discussion in Middleton 2012: 283–85.

96. Blegen and Lang 1960: 159–60.

97. Rutter 1992: 70; see now also Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 387.

98. See originally Blegen and Rawson 1966: 421–22. For the redating of the destruction of Pylos, see now Mountjoy 1997; Shelmerdine 2001: 381.

99. Blegen and Kourouniotis 1939: 561.

100. Davis 2010: 687. See also the discussion in Davis 1998: 88, 97.

101. Blegen 1955: 32 and see also mentions throughout Blegen and Rawson 1966.

102. See most recently Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 389, with references to the pros and cons of this discussion, which include Hooker 1982, Baumbach 1983, and Palaima 1995; see also Shelmerdine 1999 and Maran 2009: 245, with references.

103. Iakovidis 1986: 259.

104. Taylour 1969: 91–92, 95; Iakovidis 1986: 244–45, as cited in Nur and Cline 2000: 50.

105. Wardle, Crouwel, and French. 1973: 302.

106. French 2009: 108; see also French 2010: 676–77.

107. Iakovidis 1986: 259; see also Middleton 2010: 100.

108. Iakovidis 1986: 260.

109. See Yasur-Landau 2010a: 69–71; see now also the Ph.D. thesis by Murray 2013 and the M.A. thesis by Enverova 2012.

110. Maran 2009: 246–47; Cohen, Maran, and Vetters 2010; Kostoula and Maran 2012.

111. Maran 2010: 729, citing Kilian 1996.

112. See full references in Nur and Cline 2000: 51–52, where this material was initially published; see also Nur and Cline 2001.

113. Kilian 1996: 63, cited in Nur and Cline 2000: 52.

114. See Yasur-Landau 2010a: 58–59, 66–69, with further references; Maran 2010; Middleton 2010: 97–99; Middleton 2012: 284.

115. Karageorghis 1982: 82.

116. Karageorghis 1982: 82–87; subsequently updated in Karageorghis 1992: 79–86; see now also Karageorghis 2011. See also Sandars 1985: 144–48; Drews 1993: 11–12; Bunimovitz 1998; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 150–51; Middleton 2010: 83; Jung 2011.

117. Karageorghis 1982: 86–88, 91.

118. Karageorghis 1982: 88; see now brief discussion in Demand 2011: 205–6.

119. Karageorghis 1982: 89.

120. On the destruction at Enkomi, see Steel 2004: 188, citing earlier excavation reports; also now Mountjoy 2005. On the text from Ugarit—RS 20.18 (Ugaritica 5.22)—see Karageorghis 1982: 83; original publication in Nougayrol et al. 1968: 83–85 and with a new translation quoted in Bryce 2005: 334; see also Sandars 1985: 142.

121. Drews 1993: 11–12; Muhly 1984; Karageorghis 1992.

122. Steel 2004: 187. See now also Iacovou 2008 and Iacovou 2013 (the latter was written/presented in 2001 and updated in 2008, but not since then, according to the author).

123. Steel 2004: 188.

124. Steel 2004: 188–90; see now also the discussion of the pottery at these sites in Jung 2011.

125. Voskos and Knapp 2008; Middleton 2010: 84; Knapp 2012; see now also Karageorghis 2011 for his thoughts on the topic.

126. Åström 1998: 83.

127. Kaniewski et al. 2013.

128. Karageorghis 1982: 89–90. For a translation of “The Report of Wenamun,” see Wente 2003b.

129. Steel 2004: 186–87, 208–13; see also discussion in Iacovou 2008.

130. Kitchen 2012: 7–11.

131. Snape 2012: 412–13; previously Clayton 1994: 164–65. For the full story, see Redford, S. 2002.

132. Clayton 1994: 165; Redford, S. 2002: 131.

133. See Zink et al. 2012, with further media reports in the Los Angeles Times, USA Today, and elsewhere, available at http://articles.latimes.com/2012/dec/18/science/la-sci-sn-egypt-mummy-pharoah-ramses-murder-throat-slit-20121218, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/sciencefair/2012/12/17/ramses-ramesses-murdered-bmj/1775159/, and http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/12/2012/ramesses-iii-and-the-harem-conspiracy-murder (all last accessed on May 29, 2013).

134. See again Zink et al. 2012, with further media reports in the Los Angeles Times, USA Today, and elsewhere, available at http://articles.latimes.com/2012/dec/18/science/la-sci-sn-egypt-mummy-pharoah-ramses-murder-throat-slit-20121218, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/sciencefair/2012/12/17/ramses-ramesses-murdered-bmj/1775159/, and http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/12/2012/ramesses-iii-and-the-harem-conspiracy-murder (all last accessed on May 29, 2013).

135 Cf. Singer 2000: 24 and Caubet 1992: 124 on the resettlement of sites like Ras Ibn Hani by people making and using LH IIIC1 pottery. See now also Sherratt 2013: 627–28.

136. Caubet 1992: 127; see also now Yasur-Landau 2010a: 166; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 12, with additional references.

137. Steel 2004: 188–208, citing many earlier studies; see also Yasur-Landau 2010a passim.

CHAPTER FIVE

1. As written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in “The Hound of the Baskervilles.”

2. See, e.g., Sandars 1985; Drews 1993; and the papers in conference volumes edited by Ward and Joukowsky (1992) (especially the overview by Muhly [1992]) and by Oren (1997).

3. See again, e.g., Monroe 2009; Middleton 2010; Yasur-Landau 2010a; and the papers in the conference volumes edited by Bachhuber and Roberts (2009), Galil et al. (2012), and Killebrew and Lehmann (2013); also the brief summaries and lengthier discussions in Killebrew 2005: 33–37; Bell 2006: 12–17; Dickinson 2006: 46–57; Friedman 2008: 163–202; Dickinson 2010; Jung 2010; Wallace 2010: 13, 49–51; Kaniewski et al. 2011: 1; and Strobel 2013.

4. Davis 2010: 687.

5. Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 390–91; Maran 2009: 242. See also Shelmerdine 2001: 374–76, 381 and especially the detailed examination of possible causes in the Bronze Age Aegean in Middleton 2010 and elsewhere in Middleton 2012, as well as the discussions in Murray 2013 and Enverova 2012.

6. Schaeffer 1948: 2; Schaeffer 1968: 756, 761, 763–765, 766, 768; Drews 1993: 33–34; Nur and Cline 2000: 58; Bryce 2005: 340–41; Bell 2006: 12.

7. Callot 1994: 203; Callot and Yon 1995: 167; Singer 1999: 730.

8. See Nur and Cline 2001, with full discussion and references in Nur and Cline 2000.

9. Kochavi 1977: 8, cited and quoted in Nur and Cline 2001: 34; Nur and Cline 2000: 60. See now also discussion in Cline 2011.

10. See Nur and Cline 2000; Nur and Cline 2001; now also Nur and Burgess 2008.

11. See Nur and Cline 2001: 33–35, with full discussion in Nur and Cline 2000, enlarging upon and disputing the discussion in Drews 1993: 33–47; see also now the discussion in Middleton 2010: 38–41; Middleton 2012: 283–84; Demand 2011: 198. For the addition of Enkomi, see Steel 2004: 188 and n. 13, with earlier references.

12. For all examples, see Nur and Cline 2000: 50–53 and figs. 12–13, with original references cited there.

13. Stiros and Jones 1996; see again Nur and Cline 2000; Nur and Cline 2001; also Shelmerdine 2001: 374–77; Nur and Burgess 2008. On the continued occupation of Tiryns, see Muhlenbruch 2007, 2009; also comments by Dickinson 2010: 486–87 and Jung 2010: 171–73, 175.

14. See Anthony 1990, 1997; Yakar 2003: 13; Yasur-Landau 2007: 610–11; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 30–32; Middleton 2010: 73.

15. See Carpenter 1968.

16. See discussion in Drews 1992: 14–16 and Drews 1993: 77–84; but see now also Drake 2012, which may breathe new life into Carpenter’s theory, but from a different aspect. For a recent reexamination of the impact of the end of the Bronze Age on the population and trade in Iron Age Greece, see Murray 2013 as well as Enverova 2012.

17. See Singer 1999: 661–62; Demand 2011: 195; Kahn 2012: 262–63.

18. Hittite text KUB 21.38; translation following Singer 1999: 715; see also Demand 2011: 195.

19. Egyptian text KRI VI 5, 3; translation following Singer 1999: 707–8; see also Hoffner 1992: 49; Bryce 2005: 331; now Kaniewski et al. 2010: 213.

20. Hittite text KBo 2810; translation following Singer 1999: 717–18.

21. RS 20.212; translation following Monroe 2009: 83; McGeough 2007: 331–32; see previously Nougayrol et al. 1968: 105–7, 731; also Hoffner 1992: 49; Singer 1999: 716–17, with further references; Bryce 2005: 331–32; Kaniewski et al. 2010: 213.

22. RS 26.158; discussed by Nougayrol et al. 1968: 731–33; see Lebrun 1995: 86; Singer 1999: 717 n. 381.

23. The version of the letter found had been translated into Ugaritic: KTU 2.39/RS 18.038; Singer 1999: 707–8, 717; Pardee 2003: 94–95. On initial comments, see Nougayrol et al. 1968: 722. See, most recently, Kaniewski et al. 2010: 213.

24. Singer 1999: 717.

25. Ugarit text RS 34.152; Bordreuil 1991: 84–86; translation following Cohen and Singer 2006: 135. See Cohen and Singer 2006: 123, 134–35, with reference to the earlier primary publication by Lackenbacher 1995a; see also Singer 1999: 719, 727; Singer 2000: 24; and, most recently, Kaniewski et al. 2010: 213.

26. On the letter from the House of Urtenu (RS 94.2002+2003), see Singer 1999: 711–12; also Hoffner 1992: 49.

27. RS 18.147; translation following Pardee 2003: 97. The original letter, with this statement, has not been found, but is quoted verbatim in this letter sent in reply.

28. KTU 2.38/RS 18.031; translation following Monroe 2009: 98 and Pardee 2003: 93–94; see also Singer 1999: 672–73, 716, with earlier references.

29. See, e.g., Carpenter 1968; also Shrimpton 1987; Drews 1992; Drews 1993: 58; most recently Dickinson 2006: 54–56; Middleton 2010: 36–38; Demand 2011: 197–98; Kahn 2012: 262–63; Drake 2012.

30. See, e.g., Weiss 2012.

31. See Kaniewski et al. 2010 and now Kaniewski, Van Campo, and Weiss 2012; also Kaniewski et al. 2013.

32. Kaniewski et al. 2010: 207. Other studies have previously utilized ice cores and sediment cores; see, e.g., Rohling et al. 2009 and also others cited in Drake 2012.

33. Kaniewski et al. 2013.

34. Kaniewski et al. 2013: 6.

35. Kaniewski et al. 2013: 9.

36. Drake 2012: 1862–65.

37. Drake 2012: 1868; he says specifically, “Bayesian change-point analysis suggests that the change occurred before 1250–1197 BCE based on the high posterior probabilities from dinocyst/formaniferal records.”

38. Drake 2012: 1862, 1866, 1868.

39. See the press release at http://www.imra.org.il/story.php3?id=62135 and the official publication by Langgut, Finkelstein, and Litt 2013. There may have been a similar dry period in Egypt at approximately this same time; see Bernhardt, Horton, and Stanley 2012.

40. Drake 2012: 1866, 1868.

41. Carpenter 1968: 53; see also previously Andronikos 1954 and now Drake 2012: 1867.

42. Zuckerman 2007a: 25–26.

43. Zuckerman 2007a: 26. But see now Ben-Tor 2013, who disagrees.

44. Bell 2012: 180.

45. See discussions in Carpenter 1968: 40–53; Drews 1993: 62–65; Dickinson 2006: 44–45; Middleton 2010: 41–45.

46. Carpenter 1968: 52–53; Sandars 1985: 184–86.

47. See, most recently, Murray 2013.

48. Singer 1999: 733; Monroe 2009: 361–63; both cited and quoted in Bell 2006: 1.

49. RS L 1 (Ugaritica 5.23); translation following Singer 1999: 728 and Bryce 2005: 334; see also Sandars 1985: 142–43 and the original publication in Nougayrol et al. 1968: 85–86; see also Yon 1992: 119. Note that van Soldt 1999: 33 n. 40 says that this text was actually purchased on the antiquities market.

50. RS 20.18 (Ugaritica 5.22), following the translation quoted in Bryce 2005: 334 and the discussion in Singer 1999: 721; see also Sandars 1985: 142 and the original publication in Nougayrol et al. 1968: 83–85.

51. RS 88.2009; publication by Malbran-Labat in Yon and Arnaud 2001: 249–50; further discussion in Singer 1999: 729.

52. RS 19.011; translation following Singer 1999: 726.

53. Singer 1999: 730.

54. See specific listing of hoard locations in Singer 1999: 731.

55. Singer 1999: 733.

56. RS 34.137; see Monroe 2009: 147.

57. Sherratt 1998: 294.

58. Sherratt 1998: 307; see also related discussion in Middleton 2010: 32–36.

59. Kilian 1990: 467.

60. Artzy 1998. See now also Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 12 and Artzy 2013 in the volume edited by Killebrew and Lehmann.

61. Bell 2006: 112.

62. Routledge and McGeough 2009: 22, citing also Artzy 1998 and Liverani 2003.

63. Routledge and McGeough 2009: 22, 29.

64. Muhly 1992: 10, 19.

65. Liverani 1995: 114–15.

66. RS 34.129; Bordreuil 1991: 38–39; see Yon 1992: 116; Singer 1999: 722, 728, with earlier references; also Sandars 1985: 142; Singer 2000: 24; Strobel 2013: 511.

67. See Singer 2000: 27, citing Hoffner 1992: 48–51.

68. Yasur-Landau 2003a; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 114–18; Yasur-Landau 2012b. See now also Singer 2012 and, contra, Strobel 2013: 512–13.

69. Genz 2013: 477.

70. Kaniewski et al. 2011.

71. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 1.

72. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 4.

73. Kaniewski et al. 2011: 4.

74. Harrison 2009, 2010; Hawkins 2009, 2011; Yasur-Landau 2010a: 162–63; Bryce 2012: 128–29; Singer 2012; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 11. See also previously Janeway 2006–7 on Ta’yinat and the Aegean.

75. Yasur-Landau 2003a; see also Yasur-Landau 2003b, 2003c, and 2010a with previous references; Bauer 1998; Barako 2000, 2001; Gilboa 2005; Ben-Shlomo et al. 2008; Maeir, Hitchcock, and Horwitz 2013.

76. See now discussions by Demand 2011: 210–12, Stern 2012, Artzy 2013, and Strobel 2013: 526–27. See also Gilboa 1998, 2005, and 2006–7, with further bibliography; Dothan, T. 1982: 3–4; Dever 1992: 102–3; Stern 1994, 1998, 2000; Cline and O’Connor 2003, esp. 112–16, 138; Killebrew 2005: 204–5; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 13; Barakao 2013; Sharon and Gilboa 2013; Mountjoy 2013; Killebrew 2013; Lehmann 2013; Sherratt 2013. Zertal’s claim to have found a site associated with the Shardana near Megiddo in Israel has been thoroughly refuted by Finkelstein; see Zertal 2002 and Finkelstein 2002. For a translation of “The Report of Wenamun,” see Wente 2003b.

77. Bell 2006: 110–11.

78. Finkelstein 2000: 165; see also similar statements in Finkelstein 1998 and see now Finkelstein 2007. Weinstein 1992: 147 had earlier proposed a similar scenario, in which he saw the collapse of the Egyptian empire in Canaan as taking place in two phases, the first during the time of Ramses III and the second during the time of Ramses VI. See now also Yasur-Landau 2007: 612–13, 616 and Yasur-Landau 2010a: 340–41, for similar conclusions.

79. See Killebrew 2005: 230–31 for a summation of previous views.

80. Yasur-Landau 2003a; see now also discussion in Yasur-Landau 2010a: 335–45; Yasur-Landau 2012b; Bryce 2012: 33; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 17.

81. Yasur-Landau, personal communication, July 2012.

82. Yasur-Landau 2012a: 193–94; see also now Yasur-Landau 2012b and previously Yasur-Landau 2007: 615–16.

83. Yasur-Landau 2012a: 195.

84. Hitchcock and Maeir 2013: 51–56, esp. 53; also Maeir, Hitchcock, and Horwitz 2013.

85. See again Hitchcock and Maeir 2013: 51–56, esp. 53; also Maeir, Hitchcock, and Horwitz 2013.

86. See also the relevant discussion in Strobel 2013: 525–26.

87. Sandars 1985: 11, 19. Apart from Sandars, who was considered the expert on the topic, only a few other authors have attempted to write books specifically on the Sea Peoples and the collapse of the Bronze Age, including Nibbi 1975 and Robbins 2003. See now, however, Roberts’s 2008 dissertation, which has the same title as Nibbi’s earlier book.

88. Sandars 1985: 11.

89. Demand 2011: 193, citing Renfrew 1979.

90. See, e.g., Lorenz 1969, 1972. See now Yasur-Landau 2010a: 334, who (independently) also invokes the butterfly metaphor in connection with these events at the end of the Late Bronze Age.

91. Renfrew 1979: 482–87.

92. Diamond 2005; see now also Middleton 2010 and 2012, as well as previously the volume by Tainter (1988) and the edited volume by Yoffee and Cowgill (1988), besides the additional references in n. 2 to the preface, above.

93. Drews 1993: 85–90, esp. 88; see also Deger-Jalkotzy 2008: 391.

94. See the brief discussion by Dever 1992: 106–7 of the systems collapse that he sees occurring in Canaan at this time. See also Middleton 2010: 118–21 on the many contributing causes in the Aegean and now Drake 2012: 1866–68.

95. Liverani 1987: 69; also Drews 1993: 86 and Monroe 2009: 293, both citing Liverani.

96. Liverani 1987: 69; see now Monroe 2009: 292–96 for a critique of Liverani’s views.

97. Monroe 2009: 294–96.

98. Monroe 2009: 297.

99. Monroe 2009: 297.

100. Monroe 2009: 297.

101. Drake 2012: 1866–68; Kaniewski et al. 2013.

102. Drews 1993; see my own review of Drews’s book: Cline 1997b.

103. See now the recent discussion regarding collapse and the potential reasons for such in Middleton 2012.

104. Johnson 2007: 3–5.

105. Bell 2006: 14–15.

106. Johnson 2007: 13.

107. Johnson 2007: 13–16.

108. Johnson 2007: 14–15; Sherratt 2003: 53–54.

109. Johnson 2007: 15.

110. Johnson 2007: 17.

111. Bell 2006: 15, citing Dark 1998: 65, 106, and 120.

112. Dark 1998: 120.

113. Dark 1998: 120–21.

114. Bell 2006: 15. See now also Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 16–17.

115. See most recently Langgut, Finkelstein, and Litt 2013: 166.

EPILOGUE

1. See now the dissertation by Murray 2013.

2. Davis 2010: 687.

3. Maran 2009: 242.

4. Cf. Millard 1995: 122–24; Bryce 2012: 56–57; Millard 2012; Lemaire 2012; Killebrew and Lehmann 2013: 5–6.

5. Van De Mieroop 2007: 252–53.

6. Sherratt 2003: 53–54; Bryce 2012: 195.

7. See the volumes edited by Schwartz and Nichols (2006) and McAnany and Yoffee (2010), at least partially in response to Diamond’s 2005 book. A conference on this topic was recently held at Southern Illinois University in March 2013: “Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization & Reorganization in Complex Societies.”

8. Dever 1992: 108.

9. Monroe 2009: 292.

10. Cho and Appelbaum 2008, A1.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!