Modern history

The Zenith of European power 1830-70

The Zenith of European power 1830-70

This volume examines the power of Europe from 1830 to 1870.



Fellow of Corpus Christi College and Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge



The period, one of improved methods and new institutions

Extension of agriculture

Enclosure, drainage and fertilisers

Improvement of farm equipment and its dependence on capital

Operation of the Com Laws

Agricultural prosperity between 1850 and 1873

Growth of textile industries

Machine production and increase in output of iron, steel and coal

Transport of goods and materials by road and water

The coming of the railways

The golden age of the American sailing ship Transport by steamship

Crossing the Atlantic

Improved communications and international trade

Tariffs and free trade

Raising of capital necessitated by trade expansion

Banks and banking

Extension of factory system

Migratory movements of labour

Living and working conditions Limitation of child labour

Repeal of Combination Laws Growth of Trade Union movement

Some tentative conclusions 1825-50 a period of extraordinary development

Improvement of working conditions, 1850-70



1830-70 falls between the formative and modem periods of science

The state as patron. Contributions of Western Europe and the U.S.A

Little co-operation between science and production

Influence of scientific attitude on hygiene, farming and chemical industries and on philosophy. The Utilitarian, Positivist and Marxist philosophies

Interdependence of different branches of science illustrated in exploitation of mathematical analysis

Clerk Maxwell and Faraday’s theory

The perfecting of spectrum analysis


Atomic theory and table of atomic weights

The theory of valency

The periodic law. Mendel6ef and Meyer

Laboratory synthesis and commercial exploitation

Pasteur and microbiology

Opposing schools in experimental physiology

Geologists and the age of the earth

Theory of evolution and its opponents

Medical and surgical practice

Lister’s antiseptic system of surgery. Function of the inventor

The work of Comte and Spencer. Attitude of the Churches



Ecclesiastical reaction following defeat of Napoleon. Papacy returns to Rome

The Liberal-Catholic movement in France

Lamennais’s appeal to the Pope. The bull Mirari vos

Ultramontanism and uniform use of Roman liturgy in France

The educational struggle; the Loi Falloux. The Swiss ‘Regeneration’ movement

The religious problem in Switzerland. Defeat of the Sonderbund

The Oxford Movement

Disputes in the Church of Scotland. Founding of Free Church of Scotland

Re-establishment of Roman Catholic hierarchy in England

Controversy between Anglicans and Nonconformists concerning state education

Ancient universities opened to non-Anglicans. The religious census of 1851

Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Relations between church and state in Italy

Rise of Louis Napoleon. The Syllabus of Errors

The General Council

France’s attitude to General Council

Council prorogued sine die. War between France and Prussia

The definition of papal infallibility

Political aftermath of General Council unfavourable

The Irish Church and its disestablishment

Development of social conscience

Literary and historical criticism of the Bible



The aftermath of the French Revolution

The role of the state in education

The spread of liberalism and nationalism

Clerical and secular views of education

The Liberals and freedom of education

Swiss, German, English and French theorists

Primary education

The secondary school and modem studies

Education and liberal culture

The ‘public school’ system. Growing importance of technical and professional training

The universities

Secondary and higher education in Italy

The English universities. Educational history of the U.S. A

Education in self-governing colonies and India

The ‘ British Indian ’ system

The education of women

Adult education

Mechanics’ Institutes, libraries and museums

England’s lead in the development of the press

Abolition of the stamp duty. Unique position of The Times

Increase in number of newspapers. The French press

The German and Austrian press

Connection between press and political parties

Censorship, The Russian press

The American press

Some comparisons. New techniques

Growth of news agencies



Emancipation from patronage. Artistic lead of England c. 1760-c. 1800

The problem of individualism

English Victorian architecture

The Gothic revival and other imitative styles

The architect a purveyor of fagades. Similar developments abroad

The Neo-Gothic style in Germany, Italy and France

Neo-classical style in the U.S.A. Revival of native Renaissance styles

Inflated size of public buildings

A period of design in two, rather than three, dimensions. Consequent poverty of sculpture

French painting of the period

The work of Delacroix

Realism in painting the hall-mark of the period

Millet and Courbet

Industrial revolution exerts little influence on painting

The Pre-Raphaelites

Impressionism. The late Victorians



The novel dominates the field of literature

The desire to attain a belief; increasing preoccupation with‘psychology’

Literature as an instrument of exploration

Nineteenth-century realism

Consciousness of the social problems of the age

The ‘Bildungsroman’

Decline of the traditional heroic hero

The unruly genius of Victor Hugo

The ‘historic’ novel. Realism as a mode of presentation

The connection between literature and society

The world of the Russian novelist

Comparison between Tolstoy and Dostoevsky

Flaubert’s realism

Realism of the prose and romanticism of the poetry of the period

The poetry of the period




Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe

Nekrasov and Walt Whitman

Dramatic writing below level of that reached by the novel and poetry

German, Austrian and Russian drama



Changes in forms of government

No continuous advance towards liberal and democratic institutions

The Marxist challenge to liberalism

The first democratic institutions. Fundamental reforms in France, Belgium, Great Britain and Germany

Constitutional evolution of German states. The revised French charter of 1830

The Belgian constitution of 1831

British parliamentary reform and its influence

The U.S.A. and Belgium provide models for constitution-makers

American influence on German National Assembly

The Swiss constitution of 1848. Federal reform and failure in Habsburg Empire

The Kremsier draft constitution

The Italian constitutional dilemma of 1848-9

The Piedmontese Statuto of 1848 and its importance as a national symbol

The Years of Revolution and Reaction

The 1850’s a period of marking-time and consolidation

Emancipation of serfs

Liberalism menaced from both Left and Right

Improvements in administrative organisation

Tightening up the machinery of the centralised state

Lack of any tradition of self-government in Germany and Austria

Vicissitudes of the federal idea

Its failure in Italy and Austria

Its revival in Germany and Mexico, and triumph in Canada

1867 an annus mirabilis



Definition of nationality

Prospects of nationality in 1832

The role of France and of Paris and other West European cities before 1848

Irish nationalism

Nationalism in France

The Schleswig-Holstein problem

The Pan-Scandinavian movement

Separation of Belgium from Holland

The Flemish movement

The Swiss national movement

Mazzini and Italian nationalism

German nationalism

The Polish question reveals the divorce between liberalism and nationalism

Nationalism in Eastern Europe

Russia’s traditional nationalism

Finland, Latvia and Estonia

Slavophiles and Pan-Slavs

Failure of the Slav Congress in Prague

The great Polish emigration of 1831

Prussian, Austrian and Russian Poland

The Polish rising of 1863. The Lithuanians

The Polish poets. Austria the antagonist of national self-determination

Golden age of literature and scholarship in the Austrian Empire

The conflict of nationalities in Hungary

The Ottoman empire

Emergence of the Balkan states

The Jews

Progress of nationalism



The diplomatic division of Europe

Flexibility of the alliance system illustrated by the Belgian crisis of 1830

Palmerston secures acceptance of Belgian independence by the powers

Ambiguities of French policy

Reasons for the Eastern powers’ acquiescence in the peaceful solution of the Belgian problem

Widening of the gulf between the Eastern and Western powers. The Near East

The Sultan appeals to Russia. Russo-Turkish Treaty of 1833

Affairs of Portugal and Spain. The Quadruple Alliance, the West’s answer to Unkiar-Skelessi and Miinchengratz

Disruptive tendencies in the Anglo-French entente. Near Eastern crisis, 1839-40

Defeat of Mahmud’s forces. The four ambassadors meet in Vienna

Tsar sends Brunnov to London and drives a wedge between Great Britain and France

Quadruple Agreement. Isolation of France and danger of war

Russia attempts to formalise isolation of France. Mettemich’s mediation between France and the other powers. Straits Convention, 1841

Breakdown of the Anglo-French entente. France seeks understanding with Austria

Anglo-Russian relations more friendly

1848 Revolutions threaten balance of power

Lamartine’s‘Manifesto to the Powers’

Peace endangered by Prussia’s anti-Russian policy and the revolt of Lombardy and Venetia

Palmerston, Russia, and the Hungarian revolt

Threat of Austro-Prussian war. Prussia capitulates at Olmtitz. Schleswig-Holstein problem

Last successful meeting of Concert of Europe. Implications of the balance of power

Willingness of the powers to maintain peace. The Crimean turning point

Effects of the Crimean War

Great Britain’s tendency to withdraw from continental affairs

Alliances and diplomatic alignments cease to be defensive in purpose

Inability or unwillingness among statesmen to collaborate



Complete predominance of British navy

Extensive and rapid changes in materiel

The new type of fighting force envisaged by Paixhans

Early days of steamships

Introduction of the screw-propeller

The steamship in the Crimean War. The problem of coaling

Steam wins the battle with sail in the British navy

Transition from wood to iron. French and British hesitations

End of the wood-iron controversy. Roundshot or shell. The French again pioneers

Whitworth and Armstrong revolutionise gunnety

Armour, the answer to the shell. The broadside becoming obsolete

Temporary success of the‘ram’. Efficacy of the turret

Mine, submarine and torpedo

‘Commissioned officers’, ‘warrant officers’ and ‘men’ in the Royal Navy


Block in promotion. Unemployed officers. Patronage

The navy as a full-time profession

Introduction of the ‘general commission’. The ‘active’ and the ‘retired’ list.

Conditions of entry

Senior officers’ selection of their own successors. Introduction of entry examinations

Naval College training of cadets. The spread of commissions

Jealousy between ‘executive’ and engineer officers

Evils of impressment. Improvement in conditions of service

Long-term service established, also fleet reserve. Genesis of the bluejacket

The seaman’s changed status

The navies of the U.S.A. and France

Graham’s new Register. Formation of Royal Naval Reserve

Direction and administration of the Royal Navy



Computing the strength of armed forces by the number of men

The flint-lock musket and the percussion system

The development of the rifle. Breech-loading

Development of artillery and machine guns

The French mitrailleuse

The military use of railways

Need for rapid concentration and deployment of forces

The electric telegraph

The Prussian‘General Staff ’


The influence of Jomini and Clausewitz

The French conquest of Algeria

Radetzky’s brilliant generalship in the Austro-Italian War of 1848-9

Ill-management of the Crimean War

The Italian War of 1859

Bismarck observes the military weakness of France and Austria

The strategy of the Seven Weeks War of 1866

Strategic pattern of Franco-Prussian War

The American Civil War



A rural and agricultural society becomes fundamentally urban and industrial

Increase and shifts in population

The age of railway construction

Trans-Atlantic shipping

Coal, iron and cotton

Britain a world power. Modification of political system

The two Houses of Parliament

Redistribution of constituencies

Elections and the electorate. Reform Act of 1867

Local government reform. Increase in public servants and officials

The Civil Service

Alignments and organisation of political parties

Cabinet solidarity and collective responsibility. The Queen’s memorandum about Palmerston

Abolition of slavery

Improvements in the conditions of factory workers

Repeal of the Com Laws

The Bank Charter Act of 1844

Working-class self-help and voluntary organisation

The early trade unions

The ‘Tolpuddle Martyrs’

The Chartist movement

The Co-operative movement

Britain’s peaceful policy

A new conception of Empire and Commonwealth

Development in the colonies. Shift in balance of imperial interests

The quest for markets

Self-government the goal of colonial administration

Rebellions in Canada; the Durham Report

Constitutional development of Australia, New Zealand and Cape Colony

General character of British development epitomised by imperial defence system



Survival and recurrence in Russian institutions and thought

The revolt of the Decembrists

Political police and censorship as instituted by edicts of 1826

The State Council

The Kochubei Committee of 1826

The tsar’s interest in agrarian reform

Increase in local peasant risings. The Polish insurrection (1830)

Uvarov, Minister of Education

Codification of Russian laws

Changes in economic policy

Russia’s interest in the strengthening of Prussia and Austria against international revolution

The revolutionary spirit passes from army and salon to scholar and publicist

Westerners and Slavophiles

Political controversy under the guise of literary criticism

The army the chief field for individual advancement

The new emperor Alexander II

Emancipation of the serfs

Home-based conspiracy and agitation

Nihilism and populism

The Polish revolt of 1863. Superficial liberalisation of Finland

The local government reform decree (1864)

The new judicial system of 1864

‘Peoples’ primary schools

Attempted assassination of tsar (1866)

Introduction of universal military service

Reform of the Bank of Russia

Economic conditions following the Crimean War

Economic failure of the agrarian revolution

The administration of Siberia

Alaska ceded to U.S.A

New forward policy at the expense of China

Pacification of Transcaucasia

Expeditions against the Khanates of Khiva, Bokhara and Khokand



Conditions that precede revolution

The instigators—intellectuals; their inspiration—France

Differing concepts of nationality

Significance of the social problem

Paris Revolution of 24 February

Its effect on Europe

Vienna the source of revolution in Central Europe

Liberation of Lombardy and Venetia

The rising in Berlin and its consequences

Some results of the revolutions

The ebb-tide of revolution in France

The effect on Europe

Election of Louis Napoleon

The Prussian Constituent Assembly dissolved

The Frankfurt Parliament

Frederick William of Prussia refuses the German crown

End of the political revolution in Italy, Hungary and Austria

Revolution comes to a standstill in France and Germany

Reform of the Germanic Confederation. Humiliation of Prussia

Louis Napoleon’s coup d'etat (1851)

Results of the revolution



Influence of steamship and railway

Extent of the Mediterranean

Climatic conditions

The arrival of the ‘tourist’

Relative activity of Mediterranean ports

Population of Mediterranean ports

The European ports

The Levantine ports

The ports of North Africa

Rivalries: traditional, trading, dynastic and national

Greece becomes independent kingdom

Egypt a disturbing force under Mehemet Ali

Mehemet Ali and the French capture of Algiers

Mehemet Ali’s invasion of Syria and Asia Minor

The Sultan defeated at Nezib. Settlement imposed by Convention of London (1840)

French influence in the Levant. Anglo-Russian rivalry a new factor in Mediterranean politics

Britain a predominant influence in Mediterranean politics

Operation of regular steamship lines

Demonstrations of British naval power

The Suez Canal project

Chevalier’s concept of inter-continental railways and canals

Enfantin’s belief in a canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea

English, French and Austro-German groups come to agreement

Plan for a railway gains ground

De Lesseps obtains formal concession

De Lesseps issues the prospectus and work is commenced

Completion of the canal



Louis Napoleon’s early life; his one purpose to restore the Empire

His failure to secure a revision of the constitution

The coup d'etat of December 1851; the new Constitution (January 1852)

Restoration of the Empire

Napoleon Ill’s supporters of diverse political views

The logic in his opportunism

Two periods in the reign: (1) the period of personal rule

The functions of the Corps Legislatif and Senate

Encouragement of economic expansion—credit, railways and lowering of tariffs

Increasing acceptance of the regime

(2) The period of unsteady equilibrium

Internal dissensions over religious issues

Social and political cleavages consequent on economic expansion

A resurgence of republicanism. Napoleon veers towards the left

Rapid increase in foreign investment and industrial production

Reasons for economic expansion. Social pre-eminence of the bourgeoisie.

Changes in the common people

The world of ideas lags behind economic enterprise

The rebuilding of Paris. The new rich

Napoleon’s aims in foreign policy

The Crimean War and the war against Austria (1859)

French intervention in Mexico

Napoleon’s role in the struggle between Prussia and Austria

The march of events culminating in Sedan

Collapse of Second Empire. Its mark on French history



The background of Russo-Turkish relations

Reasons for the war. The dispute over the Holy Places

Napoleon’s moderation in face of the tsar’s insult. Russia recognises probability of war, makes further demands on Turkey

Russian plans for dismembering the Ottoman empire

Turkey complies with an Austrian ultimatum

Menshikov’s mission

Turkey rejects the Russian demands

British and French fleets ordered to Besika Bay. Russian forces occupy line of the Danube

The Vienna Note. Arrival of Egyptian fleet

Russian Foreign Office document leaks out to the press. British and French fleets at Constantinople

Defeat of Turkish flotilla at Sinope. British and French fleets enter Black Sea

The Western powers declare war. Military operations slow to develop

Austria occupies Principalities for duration of war. Crimean peninsula becomes theatre of war

Missed opportunities. Austria signs Franco-British alliance

Fresh negotiations. Outcry in Britain against conduct of the war. Palmerston becomes Prime Minister

Decline in Austria’s influence. Fall of Sebastopol

Sardinia adheres to the Franco-British alliance. Overtures to Sweden

Palmerston plans bulwarks against Russia, but France makes informal soundings for peace

Russia accepts terms and armistice declared. Casualty figures

Press reports of mismanagement result in reorganisation of British army administration

Effects of the war in France, Russia and Turkey

The peace congress and the consequent treaty

Congress turns to afiairs of Poland, Greece and Italy

Decline in diplomatic prestige of Austria and Russia; they turn towards France

Partition of Turkey postponed

Russo-British hostility remains



Revival of liberalism throughout Germany

Formation of the German Customs Union (Zollverein) and the Tax Union (Steuerverein)

Prussian administrative system the envy of liberals throughout Europe

Accession of Frederick William IV raises hopes of political unity and a more liberal policy

The political situation in individual states

Prussia under the ministry of Count Brandenburg

The Habsburg claim to German leadership. Frederick William declines the Imperial crown of Germany

Failure of the Frankfurt Assembly

Alliance of the Three Kingdoms. Austria’s economic plans

Failure of Radowitz’s Prussian Union plan

Prussia’s humiliation at Olmtitz. Austria fails to gain admission to the Zollverein

Prussian conservatism. Liberals and the connection between power and sovereignty

Prussia’s expanding economy. Austria’s economic position weakens

The war in Italy. Austro-Prussian relations

Machinery of the German Confederation. The German National Association

William, prince of Prussia, becomes regent

Roon’s proposals for reforming the Prussian army

The regent encounters strong parliamentary opposition. The Progressive Party

Bismarck becomes head of the government

Bismarck’s speech in the Prussian Diet—‘by Blood and Iron’

Austria’s last attempt to assert preponderance in Germany

Russian goodwill necessary to Prussia

William I refuses to attend the Frankfurt Congress of Princes

The Schleswig-Holstein question

Bismarck gambles on French neutrality and secures the alliance of Italy

Bismarck breaks up the Confederation and prepares for war

The end of the struggle for supremacy

Formation of the North German Confederation



Difficulties in the customary division of mid-nineteenth-century Austrian history

The equation being worked out by‘revolution’and‘reaction’

‘Reaction’ firmly in control of Austria

‘Historic units’ and Kreise. Ferdinand succeeded by Francis Joseph

Defeat of Hungarians. A new constitution applicable to the entire monarchy (March 1849)

Lombardy and Venetia kept under military control The government’s plans for Hungary

Hungarians proclaim their independence. The repression by Haynau

Settlement of Transylvania and the Southern Slav areas. Bach’s influence

Emancipation of the peasants. Judicial and educational reforms. Vigorous attempt to expand industry

German becomes the official language

Francis Joseph assumes sole political responsibility. A system of complete absolutism

Concordat of 1855 places Roman Catholic Church under special protection of the state

Easier material existence influences acceptance of absolutism in western half of the monarchy

Economic expansion and growing state expenditure

Conditions in Hungary. Continued dissatisfaction

Prospects of war. The stock-exchange crash of 1857

The Italian war (1859). Francis Joseph’s retreat from absolutism

The‘Laxenburg Manifesto’(August 1859). The Hungarian problem

The Reinforced Reichsrath recommends reconstruction of the monarchy

Concessions made to Hungary. The ‘October Diploma’

Hungary rejects the ‘October Diploma’

Schmerling’s ‘February Patent’ ill received

Francis Joseph makes approach to Hungary

The Austro-Prussian war. Andrdssy persuades Francis Joseph to drop federalism

Final agreement with Hungary



Desire for good government, but complete absence of national consciousness

Sardinia-Piedmont the nucleus for a greater kingdom. Minor insurrections in 1831

Austria restores order and the old regime continues

Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia

The neo-Guelph writers

The influence of Mazzini. Election of Pope Pius IX

Austria’s ill-advised entry into Modena and Ferrara. Insurrection in Palermo

Various rulers grant constitutions. Customs league between the Papal States and Tuscany

Rebellion in Milan precipitates war. Charles Albert compelled to act

Charles Albert refuses the collaboration of Garibaldi and is defeated at Custoza and Novara

Collapse of the revolution in Naples, Rome and Venice. Italy again becomes occupied territory

Abdication and death of Charles Albert. Victor Emmanuel partially re-establishes royal authority

The passing of the Siccardi laws. Cavour joins the D’Azeglio cabinet

Cavour replaces D’Azeglio. His methods

Piedmont’s intervention in the Crimean War

Increased clerical opposition. Cavour and Mazzini

Cavour’s diplomatic duel with Austria. Defeat of Austria at Magenta and Solferino

Cavour’s resignation and return to power

Mazzini’s belief in unification of Italy. Garibaldi captures Palermo

Naples falls to Garibaldi and Piedmontese troops enter the Papal States. A Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

Parliament meets in Turin, February 1861. Death of Cavour

Civil war in Sicily. The acquisition of Venice and Rome



Bismarck not wholly responsible for outbreak of war. Essential difference between Bismarck and Napoleon III

Prussia’s increase of territory and population. Bismarck’s policy of weakening his parliamentary enemies

Bismarck’s use of the draft Franco-Prussian treaty

Napoleon’s desire to compensate France for Prussia’s gains. The projected purchase of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg

Neutrality of Luxemburg to be guaranteed by the powers

Napoleon pursues the mirage of an alliance with Austria

The projected triple alliance ends in deadlock. Reorganisation of the French army 584 Neither France nor Prussia ready for war. The secret activities of Fleury and Daru 585 Napoleon returns to his plan for a triple alliance. Isabella of Spain takes refuge in France

Prince Leopold of Hohenzollem’s candidature for the Spanish throne

Prince Leopold persuaded to accept the Spanish crown

France makes two capital mistakes

Forces at work in the interests of peace

France confident of temporary military predominance

Karl Anton in his son’s name renounces any claim to throne of Spain

Gramont proposes a letter of apology to Napoleon from William I

Benedetti’s interview with William I and Bismarck’s published version of the Ems telegram

French Cabinet’s decision to mobilise

France declares war without allies

The surrender of Napoleon and fall of the Second Empire. The annexation of Alsace and Northern Lorraine

The German Empire is founded



Sequence of development differs from that of Europe

Congress, the Executive and the Supreme Court moving towards nationalism

Growing economic unity

Two obstacles to the continued ascendancy of nationalism

Two major conflicts during the Jackson administration

Contrast between North and South

Antagonism between seaboard settlements and the interior

North and West tend to become reciprocal markets and sources of supply

Invention of the cotton gin. Expansion of the plantation system in the South

Four points of conflict between North and South

Absence of complete sectional unity

Reactions against slavery

The South unites in defence of slavery. Militant anti-slavery in the North

Slavery as a Federal question

The annexation of Texas

The Mexican war

The Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Marked deterioration of Union sentiment

Abraham Lincoln becomes President

Formation of the Confederate States of America

Lincoln's awareness of the importance of voluntary loyalty



The pivotal event in American history

Man-power of the opposing sides

The North’s superior economic potential

The importance of railways and the blockade of the Southern coast-line

The Confederate cause not a hopeless one

Confederate confidence in intervention by European powers

European powers recognise Confederacy as a belligerent. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation

Overall superiority of the North’s diplomacy. Effects of the cotton shortage

English public opinion moves in favour of the North. The Trent affair

The Alabama damage claims. The Laird rams

France’s ambitions in Mexico

Expansion of the North’s economic system

The Republican party’s wartime legislation

Northern war finance and army recruitment. The casualties

Lincoln’s bold exercise of his war powers

Factions within the major political parties

Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The presidential election of 1864

The Confederate constitution

Jefferson Davis and his cabinet

Finance, recruitment and states rights in the South

General strategy of the war

The command system of the opposing armies

Results of the war



Former Spanish and Portuguese dominions become independent states

The Brazilian empire

Brazil’s gradual transition to independence

The rule of Dom Pedro

Chile and the Chilean constitution of 1833

Economic expansion of the ’forties and ’fifties

The presidency of Manuel Montt

Progressive liberalisation under President Perez. War with Spain

The paralysing problems of Bolivia Snd Ecuador

Peru’s prosperity and disorder. Venezuela and Colombia

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata

The Age of Rosas in the‘Argentine Confederation’

Argentina’s constitutional problems and economic development. The police state of Paraguay

The Paraguayan war

Monarchy in Mexico followed by an unstable republic and separatist movements

Overthrow of Santa Anna. Benito Ju&rez elected president

Introduction of drastic innovations

Juarez’s struggle with the forces of reaction. His eventual re-election as president

British, Frenchand Spanishtroopslanded. Archduke Maximilian accepts the crown

Death of Maximilian; Judrez again president

The states of Central America

Britain’s connections with the Mosquito Indians

The transisthmian canal project; the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

Further friction between Britain and the U.S.A. The colony of British Honduras

The negro republic of Haiti and the Dominican republic


By the ’seventies Latin America is on the threshold of a new age



The massive political organism controlled by Peking

Lack of normal diplomatic intercourse with other powers

System of trade with Western nations

The trade in opium

Lord Napier as Superintendent of Trade

The Kowloon episode (1839)

British expeditionary force invests Nanking. China comes to terms with the Treaty of Nanking (1842)

Conditions bound to lead eventually to the outbreak of war

Provisions of the Treaty of Nanking

The International Settlement of Shanghai

Foreigners denied freedom of travel. Friction over application of treaties, especially the ‘right of entry’ into Canton

Activities of Western missionaries

The rise of the Taipings

The Taipings declare Nanking their capital. Weakening of their power

Their religious fanaticism. Forces raised to combat them

Sir George Bonham attempts to make contact with the Taipings

The Small Sword Society seizes Shanghai

British and French troops enter Canton (1857)

American and Russian envoys join the British and French plenipotentiaries

Russian encroachments in China

Capture of the Taku forts

The Tientsin treaties concede diplomatic representation and the right of travel

Treaty envoys barred admission

Treacherous attack on British and French envoys travelling under flag of truce

Flight of the Emperor exploited by Russia

The regency of the Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi

Final suppression of the Taiping rebellion

Repression of Chinese Muslim revolts. The restored empire enters into normal diplomatic relations with Western powers

The continuance of anti-foreign riots

French annexation of Cochin-China and expedition against Korea

The Japanese policy of seclusion

The Treaty of Kanagawa. The political system of the Tokugawa period

Attacks on Western nationals result in combined naval action

Western powers enforce imperial ratification of their treaties. The Meiji Restoration